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Tracheoesophageal puncture represents the ‘gold standard’ for voice restoration following laryngectomy. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be undertaken primarily during laryngectomy or in a separate secondary procedure. There is no current consensus on which approach is superior. The current evidence comparing primary and secondary tracheoesophageal puncture was assessed.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of articles comparing outcomes for primary and secondary tracheoesophageal puncture after laryngectomy were conducted. Outcome measures were: voice success, overall complication rate and pharyngocutaneous fistula rate.
Eleven case series met the inclusion criteria, two prospective and nine retrospective. Meta-analysis did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in overall complication rate or voice outcomes, though it suggested a significantly increased risk of pharyngocutaneous fistula in primary compared to secondary tracheoesophageal puncture.
Primary tracheoesophageal puncture is a safe and efficient approach for voice rehabilitation. However, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture should be preferred where there is a higher risk of pharyngocutaneous fistula.
Intranasal steroid sprays are fundamental in the medical management of inflammatory rhinological conditions. Side effects are common, but these may be related to the method of application rather than the medication itself.
A survey was distributed to patients using intranasal steroid sprays at the ENT out-patient clinic at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary over three months. This evaluated the spray technique used, side effects and compliance.
Of 103 patients, 22 patients (21.4 per cent) reported side effects, including nasal irritation and epistaxis. Of the 20 patients with epistaxis, 80 per cent used an ipsilateral hand technique (p = 0.01). Thirty patients demonstrated poor compliance because of lack of symptom improvement or side effects. Seventy-seven per cent of this group used the ipsilateral hand technique.
Patients who used their ipsilateral hand to apply the intranasal steroid spray were more likely to develop epistaxis and have poor compliance than those who used other techniques. Patients who struggle with compliance because of side effects should avoid this method of intranasal steroid application.
To highlight a rare cause of Horner's syndrome, and to review the management of blunt carotid artery injury.
Literature search via PubMed for related articles.
Horner's syndrome and blunt carotid artery injury are rare phenomena; sexual asphyxia as a cause has not previously been reported. This case is also the first of its kind to have radiological evidence of injury to the external carotid artery but not the internal carotid artery. In Horner's syndrome, additional symptoms of ipsilateral headache or neck pain, tinnitus, or any cerebral ischaemic symptoms should raise suspicion of blunt carotid injury.
Blunt carotid artery injury is a potentially fatal condition and can present without radiological evidence. Early recognition and management with anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs is crucial to prevent mortality and morbidity.
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