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Values are important in understanding the managerial behaviour. Values are the unique criteria that enable people to become conscious of social relations and duties. We contribute to this understanding through determining the values which affect an organisation’s business approach by providing evidence from a comparative study of various airports through a questionnaire method. The study was carried out with 163 participants and factor analysis was used to reduce the complexity of a data set so that it becomes easier to use the data in applied settings. Ranking analysis was used to get the values hierarchy of managers. This hierarchy-addicted culture helps to understand corporate sustainability and loyalty. Managing values increases quality and retains sustainability. Further suggestions are made regarding values that should be taken into consideration for achieving corporate strategies, whether operating regionally or globally. This study contributes towards improving awareness on the effects of values in business management in both theory and practice, along with their limitations. The analysis shows that there is a conformity between organisational and individual values.
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) data have shown that nearly half of all malaria deaths in India occur in tribal-dominated areas. The present study took a qualitative approach to understanding community perceptions and practices related to malarial infection and anti-malarial programmes. Twelve focus group discussions and 26 in-depth interviews of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) were conducted in nine villages in the district of Gadchiroli, Maharashtra state in India in June 2016. A total of 161 village residents (94 males and 67 females) participated in the focus group discussions and 26 health workers participated in the in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using the content analysis approach. The findings revealed widespread misconceptions about malaria among village residents, and low use of preventive measures and anti-malarial services. Ignorance and treatment by unqualified traditional healers delay effective treatment seeking. Furthermore, failure to maintain drug compliance adds to the gravity of the problem. The study identified the social and behavioural factors affecting treatment uptake and use of treatment facilities in the study area. These should help the development of the behavioural change communication arm of any control strategy for malaria through improving community participation, so improving preventive practices and optimizing utilization of anti-malarial services.
While we know that upcoding of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) regularly occurs, we have little knowledge of the role of the technical features of coding systems in inducing coding behaviour. This paper presents methods for investigating the financial structure of the Dutch DRG system, and more in particular the grouper software, to gain such insight. The paper describes a system for investigating the robustness of the reward structure, by simulating the response of the DRG system to small changes in individual coding. The results from these analyses are used to visualise some data on coding behaviour, and to investigate how this behaviour is affected by incentives in the technical features of the DRG system. A number of technical weaknesses in the system are also identified.
The cryptic nature and lack of consistent biological control of the stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner, an emerging pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, necessitated the monitoring and assessment of the impact of the parasitoid complex on seasonal regulation of the pest population. In this paper, we measure and relate, using the host density as a predictor variable, the seasonal density dependence of M. sojae parasitoids and the level of parasitism in soybean fields. The results revealed density dependence of parasitioids. The populations built up concomitant with the host insect, reached their peak during the mid-season, and declined towards the end of the crop season. A complex of 10 species of hymenopteran parasitoids comprising six species from Pteromalidae and one species each from the families Eurytomitidae, Eucoilidae, Braconidae and Eulopidae had a significant impact on M. sojae populations with a peak parasitism of ~50%. The seasonality and relative abundance of parasitoids were explored. Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomitidae) and Gronotoma sp. (Eucoilidae) were the most prevalent parasitoids throughout the season, whereas the pteromalid Sphegigaster sp. was dominant during the mid-season. The modulation of management practices aimed at conservation of these bioagents could improve the biological control of M. sojae populations. We discuss the practicality of several management options aimed at achieving this goal.
In this chapter, we first review mathematical creativity with an emphasis on the nature of novelty in mathematics. We compare mathematical creativity to creativity in other domains, provide examples of novelty, and contrast these to novelty in other domains and explain types of creativity in mathematics based on perspectives in philosophy. All the theoretical perspectives we reviewed led us to synthesize that mathematical creativity involves knowledge production which is either discovery or invention. The chapter also covers pioneers and their contributions to the study of mathematical creativity, such as Polya and Krutetskii. The last part of the chapter includes a review and critique of the assessment of mathematical creativity, such as paper and pencil assessments, observations and interviews, and self-assessment.
The design of a novel microstrip ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter with quad narrow notched-band functionality is presented. The filter consists of a multi-mode resonator (MMR) constituted from two modified stepped-impedance stubs that generate six resonate modes, five of which are within the UWB passband where the sixth mode is used to extend the upper stopband of the filter. Two transmission zeroes are located at the 3-dB edge of the passband to enhance the filter's selectivity with a skirt factor of 0.955. The MMR is fed through asymmetric interdigital coupled-lines feed to produce controllable notched-band. Additional notched-bands are generated with a parasitic coupled line. The notched-bands are centered exactly to eliminate interference at 5.2 GHz (wireless local area network (WLAN)), 5.8 GHz (WLAN), 6.8 GHz (radio-frequency identification), and 8 GHz (X-band). Good agreement is obtained between simulation and measurement results. The highly compact filter has dimensions of 8.0 × 9.83 mm2.
This article examines the consequences of neoliberalism in two separate domains of multilingual language use in the context of Nepal: language education and tourism. We show that institutions and individuals have appropriated and reproduced this ideology with their creative tactics, agency, and practices that both help them promote and commodify their ethnolinguistic identity and language skills while also allowing them to acquire multilingual repertoires in global languages such as English, German, Chinese, Japanese, and the indigenous local language Newari. We show that English as a global language does not always accord more cultural capital and economic value, nor is the teaching and learning of local indigenous languages always confined to the ideologies of identity politics and language preservation. We argue that while the ideologies of English as a global language and of indigenous languages as tools for ethnolinguistic identity do not disappear from the scene, new forces of globalization and neoliberalism bestow new meanings to multilingual repertoires and practices. (Neoliberalism, multilingualism, commodification, ethnolinguistic identity, Nepal)*
How does one create a future that will acknowledge the past … without repeating it? How does one look at the past with understanding, yet critically, in the etymological sense of ‘critical’ (from Greek krinein, to separate, choose), which has to do with discrimination and choice in the present?
Susan Rubin Suleiman, Subversive Intent
The contemporary is, as Susan Suleiman wrote with her characteristic lucidity a propos of Bataille, what ‘concerns us.’ And that entails, to cite her next book's title, ‘risking who one is’ by discriminating and choosing in the present. Sharing Suleiman's interest in the contemporary (and in French culture), and having been accused of anachronistic readings of old master paintings, I have thought through what that means and concluded, firstly, that anachronism is indispensible if we are to make cultural utterances of whatever era matter to us. Secondly, this includes a ‘first-person’ position that fleshes out the ‘us’ in her phrase. Indeed, Suleiman is one of a handful of academics—along with literary scholars Marianne Hirsch and Jane Tompkins, and art historians Eunice Lipton and Janet Wolff, among others—who, already in the 1980s, explored how her autobiographical and self-reflexive thoughts could help her academic analyses.
I share this interest in what personal experience, when handled carefully, can add to insights gleaned from published documentation without falling into the trap of self-indulgence. It is a form of ‘fieldwork’ with one's own history and present activities as the ‘field.’ Without it, it is hardly possible to grasp what it is that ‘concerns us,’ who and what we are when we write criticism, in and for our present time. Suleiman's most personal book, Budapest Diary, is an excellent example of how the temporality of contemporariness functions. As authors of cultural criticism, we inhabit this contemporariness by integrating memories of the past.
Mesna (i.e. sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; C2H5NaO3S2) has been used in otological surgery such as cholesteatoma dissection and tympanic membrane lateralisation in atelectatic ears. However, this study aimed to investigate its effect on cholesteatoma formation.
A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 animals. The right and left ears of control animals were treated with saline (saline control group; n = 10 ears) and propylene glycol plus saline (propylene glycol control group; n = 10 ears), respectively. In the mesna group, both ears were treated with propylene glycol plus mesna (n = 20 ears). On days 1, 8 and 15, the saline control group had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml saline and the propylene glycol control and mesna groups had intratympanic injections of 0.2 ml 100 per cent propylene glycol. On day 22, the propylene glycol control group had a single intratympanic injection of 0.2 ml saline and the mesna group had a single intratympanic injection of 10 per cent mesna. Animals were killed 12 weeks after the last injection and the temporal bones were sent for histopathological evaluation.
The cholesteatoma formation rate was 88 per cent in the propylene glycol control group, but was significantly lower in the mesna group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in granulation tissue formation (p = 0.498), cyst formation in the bulla (p = 0.381), fibrosis (p = 0.072) and epithelial hyperplasia (p = 0.081) among experimental groups.
Intratympanic propylene glycol administration is an effective method of promoting experimental cholesteatoma formation. Administration of a single dose of intratympanic mesna inhibited cholesteatoma formation in an animal model.
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the extent to which maternal filarial infection influences IgG subclass immune responses in the cord blood of neonates. Prevalence of antigenaemia was detected using an Og4C3 assay. Filaria-specific IgG subclasses against excretory/secretory antigens were measured by ELISA. Transplacental transfer of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was observed from 34.8% of CFA-positive mothers to their respective cord bloods. Filaria-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 responses were significantly higher among cord bloods of infected mothers compared to cord bloods of uninfected mothers. In contrast, the IgG3 response was significantly higher among cord bloods of uninfected mothers. The study shows that transplacental transfer of filarial antigens and filaria-specific IgG4 occurs more in mothers having high worm burdens, and transfer of filaria-specific IgG3 occurs more in the cord blood of uninfected mothers. The findings of the study provide evidence for the development of prenatal sensitization to filarial antigens in utero, and high filaria-specific IgG4 in cord blood may serve as a marker for in-utero sensitization.
Over the last two decades, three-dimensional (3D) imaging by transmission electron microscopy or “electron tomography” has evolved into a powerful tool to investigate a variety of nanomaterials in different fields, such as life sciences, chemistry, solid-state physics, and materials science. Most of these results were obtained with nanometer-scale resolution, but different approaches have recently pushed the resolution to the atomic level. Such information is a prerequisite to understand the specific relationship between the atomic structure and the physicochemical properties of (nano)materials. We provide an overview of the latest progress in the field of atomic-resolution electron tomography. Different imaging and reconstruction approaches are presented, and state-of-the-art results are discussed. This article demonstrates the power and importance of electron tomography with atomic-scale resolution.
This paper presents a very fast and highly efficient full-wave hybrid method for analyzing an integrated dielectric lens antenna (ILA) fed by multilayered substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) slot antenna/array. The feeding antenna structure is modeled as a stacked parallel-plate waveguide with metallic posts, coupling, and radiating slots. Physical optics method in conjunction with three-dimensional ray tracing technique is employed to analyze the effect of the dielectric lens on the SIW feeding slots. Fields in the SIW structure are computed by considering the Dyadic Green's function expressed as an expansion of vectorial cylindrical eigenfunctions and taking into account scattering at the conducting posts. Slots are modeled with equivalent magnetic currents expressed as a sum of domain basis functions. By imposing continuity of the tangential components of the fields an integral equation is obtained that is solved with the application of method-of-moments. In order to validate the proposed technique, a hemispherical ILA fed by a double-layered SIW cavity which is backed with slot antenna is analyzed. Excellent agreement is obtained with HFSS software together with significant improvement in computational time and memory requirements.
This study aimed to compare the success rate of type I tympanoplasty in active (wet) and inactive (dry) mucosal chronic otitis media.
A prospective study was performed of 35 patients each with dry ear and wet ear undergoing type I tympanoplasty in the Otolaryngology Department, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, India. All patients underwent type I tympanoplasty between January 2010 and June 2011 by the post-auricular approach. Samples of the remnant tympanic membrane were sent for histopathological examination.
After a minimum follow up of one year, the success rate was 88.6 per cent for dry ears and 80 per cent for wet ears. Neither the type (p = 0.526) nor the presence (p = 0.324) of discharge influenced the success rate. Histopathological examination of the tympanic membrane margins was performed for 46 patients: of these, 19 showed evidence of vascularity and 27 did not. There was no significant difference in success rate between groups (p = 0.115).
The success rate was not influenced by the presence of ear discharge at the time of surgery, and tympanic membrane vascularity did not influence graft uptake.
By severely constraining the political personhood of temporary migrant workers, states’ use of deportation laws seeks to curb agitation among these workers. Despite this, various episodes of unrest have been witnessed in both liberal and illiberal regimes across Asia. Drawing on a case study of Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore, this paper examines the development of migrant labour politics as deportation laws, and their enforcement, construct these workers as “use-and-discard” economic subjects. Data for the paper are drawn from multi-level sources—government, industry, media, and non-governmental organization (NGO) reports; interviews with key actors; and a participant observation stint in a construction firm—collected between 2010 and 2014. The paper argues that, rather than solely constraining, deportability serves as a constituent of certain forms of tactical worker contestations in the workplace. Specifically, under different workplace conditions, deportability can translate into differing forms of worker tactics, ranging from accommodation to confrontation and desertion. The outcomes of these strategies, in turn, have significant repercussions for the ways in which civil society groups and state-actors, respectively, challenge and reconfigure the political personhood of temporary migrant workers.