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To evaluate the clinicopathological and mycological manifestations of fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in the Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, in Klang, Malaysia, which has a tropical climate.
Records of patients treated from 2009 to 2016 were analysed retrospectively. Data from the records were indexed based on age, gender, clinical presentations, symptom duration, clinical signs and mycological growth.
Of 80 samples, 27 (33.75 per cent) had fungal growth. Sixteen patients were classified as having non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and 11 as having invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The commonest clinical presentation was nasal polyposis in non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis patients (p < 0.05) and ocular symptoms in invasive fungal rhinosinusitis patients (p < 0.05). The commonest organism was aspergillus sp. (p < 0.05) in non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and mucorales in invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
There is an almost equal distribution of both invasive and non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, as seen in some Asian countries. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, while slightly uncommon when compared to non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, is potentially life threatening, and may require early and extensive surgical debridement. The clinical presentation of nasal polyposis was often associated with non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, whereas ocular symptoms were more likely to be associated with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
The Bluetooth wireless headset has been promoted as a ‘hands-free’ device with a low emission of electromagnetic radiation.
To evaluate potential changes in hearing function as a consequence of using Bluetooth devices, by assessing changes in pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emissions.
Materials and methods:
Thirty adult volunteers were exposed to a Bluetooth headset device (1) on ‘standby’ setting for 6 hours and (2) at full power for 10 minutes. Post-exposure hearing was evaluated using pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emission testing.
There were no statistically significant changes in hearing, as measured above, following either exposure type.
Exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by a Bluetooth headset, as described above, did not decrease hearing thresholds or alter distortion product otoacoustic emissions.
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