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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is a key factor influencing birth outcome. Dietary diversity is a proxy for multiple macro- and/or micronutrient sufficiency of an individual’s diet. This systematic review aimed to summarize the findings on the association between maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (LBW) in newborns.
This is a systematic review study.
Google and the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were searched to extract original studies on humans published until June 2020, without date restrictions. There was no limitation regarding geographic region or economic condition of countries. Duplicated and irrelevant studies were screened out and data were obtained through critical analysis.
Articles that examined the association between maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy and the risk of LBW in infants were included.
Of the 98 studies retrieved, 15 articles were included in the final review. All included articles represent low- and middle-income countries. 80% of the studies (n=12) indicated that low maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of LBW infants. Three studies that included a small number of LBW infants and did not take into account factors which may bias study results, failed to show this association.
The results suggest that low maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy may be associated with the risk of LBW, more specifically in developing countries. Dietary diversity might be a valuable predictor of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the chance of giving birth to a LBW infant.
Seed priming with water (hydropriming or HP) has been shown to be beneficial for seed germination and plant growth. However, there is little information on the effects of seed priming with amino acids and casein hydrolysate (CH) compared with HP, particularly in relation to early post-germinative seedling growth under salinity stress. In this study, Italian ryegrass seeds (Lolium multiflorum L.) were primed with 1 mM of each of the 20 protein amino acids and CH (200 mg l−1) before they were germinated in 0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl in Petri dishes for 4 d in darkness. Germination percentage (GP), radicle length (RL) and peroxidase (POD) activity in the root of 4-d-old Italian ryegrass seedlings were investigated. Generally, when the seeds were germinated in 0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl, there was no significant difference in GP of seeds among various priming treatments, except that a higher GP was observed in seeds of HP treatment compared with the non-primed seeds when incubated in 60 mM NaCl. When incubated in 60 and 90 mM NaCl, seedlings from seeds primed with L-methionine or CH exhibited greater RL (greater protection against salinity stress) and higher root POD activity than those from non-primed and hydro-primed seeds. Under salinity stress, there were higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root of 4-d-old Italian ryegrass seedlings, a marker of oxidative stress, but seed priming with CH was effective in reducing the salinity-triggered increase in MDA content. These results suggest that priming with L-methionine or CH would be better than HP for the protection of seedling root growth under salinity stress and might be associated with enhanced antioxidative defence against salinity-induced oxidative stress.
Neurotoxicity is an adverse effect caused by cisplatin due to inflammation and oxidative stress in the central nervous system. The present study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin E injection on the learning and memory of rats with cisplatin-induced cognitive impairment.
Male rats were administered with cisplatin (2 mg/kg/7 day; intraperitoneally [i i.p.]) and/or vitamin E (200 mg/kg/7 day; i.p.) for 1 week, and the control group received saline solution. Spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM). In addition, the hippocampal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), thiol, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using biochemical methods.
According to the findings, cisplatin significantly increased the escape latency, while decreasing the time spent and travelled pathway in the target quadrant on the final trial day compared to the control group. Furthermore, pre-treatment with vitamin E significantly reversed all the results in the spatial memory test. The biochemical data indicated that vitamin E could decrease MDA activity and increase thiol and SOD activity compared to the control group.
According to the results, vitamin E could improve cisplatin-induced memory impairment possibly through affecting the hippocampal oxidative status.
The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias.
A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses.
MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = −0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = −0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition.
Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.
For maritime safety and security, vessels should be able to predict the trajectories of nearby vessels to avoid collision. This research proposes three novel models based on similarity search of trajectories that predict vessels' trajectories in the short and long term. The first and second prediction models are, respectively, point-based and trajectory-based models that consider constant distances between target and sample trajectories. The third prediction model is a trajectory-based model that exploits a long short-term memory approach to measure the dynamic distance between target and sample trajectories. To evaluate the performance of the proposed models, they are applied to a real automatic identification system (AIS) vessel dataset in the Strait of Georgia, USA. The models' accuracies in terms of Haversine distance between the predicted and actual positions show relative prediction error reductions of 40·85% for the second model compared with the first model and 23% for the third model compared with the second model.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of disorders from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. There is no proven drug treatment for NAFLD, and diet modification is considered part of the main line of treatment for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of garlic supplementation in NAFLD patients. The effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes and lipid profile was investigated in NAFLD patients. Ninety NAFLD patients were randomly assigned to take either a garlic powder supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. The treatment group received four tablets of garlic daily (each tablet contained 400 mg garlic powder). The control group received four tablets of placebo (each placebo contained 400 mg starch). At the end of the study, hepatic steatosis was significantly reduced in the treatment group compared with the control group (P = 0·001). In addition, a significant decrease was seen in the serum concentration of alanine transaminase (P < 0·001), aspartate transaminase (P = 0·002), γ-glutamyltransferase (P = 0·003) as well as total cholesterol (P = 0·009), TAG (P < 0·001), HDL-cholesterol (P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) in the treatment group compared with the control group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups in serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase. Overall, garlic powder supplementation improved hepatic features and lipid profile among NAFLD patients.
Schizophrenic patients are prone to osteopenia and osteoporosis due to various reasons. No research has ever been conducted on this field in Iran.
The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density in schizophrenic patients.
In a cross- sectional and descriptive study with random sampling, we used (DEXA) to determine Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in the lumbar and neck femur region of 85 in- schizophrenics and they were compared with general population. Statistical analysis was done finally.
Sixty eight of patients were males. The average age of males and females was 39.61± 6.77 and 36.29± 7.58 years respectively. The mean femur neck BMD of male and female patients were 0.88± 0.16 and 0.87± 0.15 respectively (Pv = 0.76). Mean lumbar BMD of male and female patients was 0.94± 0.18 and 0.96± 0.14 respectively (Pv = 0.761). Liner significant correlation was not found between age and femur neck BMD (P= 0.782). Liner significant correlation was found between femur neck BMD and lumbar BMD (P< 0.001). Frequency of osteopenia in patient with the age of 30-50 years was significantly higher than other patients (P= 0.011). Frequency of femur neck osteopenia and osteoporosis were 50.6% and 4.7% respectively and frequency of lumbar osteopenia and osteoporosis were 40% and 14.1% respectively.
Schizophrenic patients had lower bone mineral density than general population.
Nausea and vomiting in the first trimester is a common complaint of about 70% of pregnant women and it has a major effect on their quality of life. Its etiology is unknown but there are some risk factors for it.
The purpose of this study was to obtain the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
This case-control study was performed on 300 pregnant women who had referred to outpatient clinics. 150 of these women were suffering from nausea and vomiting while the other 150 didn’t have this problem. We determined BMI in two groups. Then the results were analyzed statistically.
The age average was 24.9 and 26.2 in case and control groups respectively. The BMI average was 26.01 kg/m2 and 26.02 kg/m2 in case and control groups respectively. No significant relationship was observed between two groups regarding the presence of nausea but in case group, women with vomiting had lower BMI (p = 0.026).
It was concluded that BMI is not a risk factor for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are thought to act as templates for information processing that influence individuals’ emotional reactions to life satisfaction.
Thus,the main purpose of the present study was to predict Life Satisfaction with respect to early maladaptive schemas among Iranian college students.
The research population consisted of 1700 students. Three hundred undergraduate students (150 female and 150 male) selected by multiple cluster sampling method. Short questionnaire form of early maladaptive schema (YSQ-SF) and life satisfaction questionnaire were used in this study. For analyzing the data, Pearson correlation, Step wise regression and dependent t were used.
Results of correlation showed negative significant correlation between life satisfaction and early maladaptive schemas including emotional Depravation, Social isolation, Defectiveness/sham, failure, Dependence/incompetence
Vulnerability To harm illness, Subjugation, Self-sacrifice, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting Standards /hyper criticalness and Insufficient Self-Control / Self-Discipline. Only three subscales Including Abandonment/ Instability, entitlement/ grandiosity, enmeshment/ undeveloped self, showed no significant correlation with life satisfaction. Result of regression analysis revealed that among 15 schemas, emotional Depravation, Defectiveness/sham and Dependence/incompetence schemas were best predictor of life satisfaction. In addition, the results indicated a significant difference between two groups of male and female students in subdivisions such as mistrust/abuse, failure, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness.
The findings of this study show that the assessment of EMS based on Young’s conceptualization of EMS can increase our understanding about students problems and interventions should be focused on changing these schemas.
One salient impact of information technology on students’ lives is the ever-increasing use of the Internet. Although there exist many reports in the media regarding the unhealthy Internet use among students, research is still limited.
Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relation of internet addiction with family functioning and mental health among students. Two-hundred and eighty students from high school and guidance school were selected by multiple cluster sampling method. They participated in the present study by completing internet addiction questionnaire, family functioning scale and mental health questionnair.The method of this study was descriptive and correlational in order to analyze the results, descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (correlations and regression) were used.
The results showed negative significant correlation between internet addiction and some subscale of family function such as assertiveness, entertainment orientation and religious emphasis. Results also indicated positive significant correlation between 3 subscales of family functioning including dissociation, conflicts and authoritarian family style with internet addiction. No significant correlations were found between other subscales and internet addiction.Regarding the relationship between mental health and addiction to Internet, research results indicate a significant positive correlation between overall mental health score and two subscale of depression and somatization with internet addiction.
The results of this study confirmed the negative effects of Internet addiction on mental health and emphasized the importance of family on intensifying internet addiction. Hence in designing treatment programs, family environment must be considered.
Fertility is an important factor in life which can be disturb due to several factors.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between infertility and sexual dysfunction.
In an analytic - descriptive study 384 fertile and 384 infertile referring women to obstetrics and gynecological clinics were studied. All these women were evaluated considering the sexual functions. Finally the results were analyzed statistically.
The age average of these women was 27.84 4.67 and 27.38 5.45 in infertile and fertile groups respectively.
The sexual desire (Pv < 0.001), the sexual arousal (Pv < 0.001). The ability of reach to orgasm (Pv < 0.001) and satisfaction from intercourse was better in fertile women.
It was concluded that the sexual function was significantly better in fertile women.
Postpartum depression is the most common and major health problem affecting mother, newborn and family health.
This study aimed to determine depression prevalence and its relationship with delivery method in Iranian women.
To identify factors contributing to postpartum depression.
In this cross-sectional study 531 primiparous women were evaluated 20 to 40 days after delivery. The instruments of gathering data were Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale which were completed via interview. Analysis of data was performed by SSPS 12.0 software.
In total 40.7% of participants had postpartum depression. The depression rate among emergent caesarean, normal delivery and elective caesarean groups was 50%, 40.5% and 27% respectively. There was a significant relationship between delivery method and depression (P = 0.001). No significant relationship was found between postpartum depression with age and mother's education level.
In this study the rate of depression in emergent caesarean group was greater than normal delivery and elective caesarean groups, therefore the method of delivery must be determined before delivery to decrease the rate of emergent caesarean by appropriate strategies. Furthermore, in emergent caesarean some interventions should be performed to decrease the rate of postpartum depression.
According to schema theory people have categorical rules or templates that they use to interpret the world and guide their behavior. A. T. Beck et al. (1990) and Young (1994) defined maladaptive or dysfunctional schemas as enduring, unconditional, negative beliefs about oneself, others, and the environment which organize one's experiences and subsequent behaviors. Because the early maladaptive schemas have been shown to predict psychosocial functioning and psychopathology it is reasonable to suspect that they might also impact substance abuse and substance dependence.
Examining the 3 addict subgroups in terms of EMS factors and comparison of addict patients with control group.
To determine whether there are particular schemas that may be underlying the addictive behavior.
Participants were 34 opiate dependent, 18 methamphetamine addicts, 30 subjects with heroin dependence and 48 healthy subjects as control group. Addict group had completed at least 6 months of treatment, all were in early full remission. Participants were given the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form in order to identify EMSs.
The results suggest that there are significant differences between the addict and control groups on 8 of the 18 schemas. There was not found any significant difference between opioid and methamphetamine groups regarding mean scores of EMSs or schema domains.
People with schema domains of impaired performance and impaired limits may be more likely to engage in substance dependence and these findings may have implications for drug abuse prevention programs.
Quality of life is an important factor in evaluating health and therapeutic problems; therefore quality of life evaluation is an important issue in medical articles. The present study investigates quality of life in 15–64 years old subjects in Kurdistan province.
Determining factors impacting quality of life in Iran.
The present study investigates quality of life in 15–64 years old subjects in Kurdistan province.
This is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study. The target population was 15 to 64 years old population in Iran. 700 individuals participated in this study. The information gathered with Euro His questionnaire. The data was then analyzed by using independent t test and multiple regression.
Subjects included 352 males (50.4%) and 346 females (49.6%). Quality of life mean score in all subjects was 28.18 (± 4.6). The mean score in men and women were 28.78 and 27.57 respectively. Asthma, smoking, female sex, residency in urban and low income had negative effect on quality of life in multiple regression (R2 = 0.151) but age, diabetes, hypertension and sport activity didn’t have any effect on quality of life after adjustment for other variables.
Quality of life score in women was lower than men. It is thus necessary to examine effective factors on decreased quality of life in women and making plans to eliminate the negative factors. According to the results, low income, smoking, residency in urban and asthma have adverse effects on quality of life. These factors should thus be considered in health programs.
Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their unaffected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function.
To investigate cognitive subtypes in siblings.
Cluster analyses were performed in 654 unaffected siblings, on a cognitive battery that included tests of attention, intellectual function, and episodic memory. Resulting subtypes in the siblings were analyzed for cognitive, demographical, and clinical characteristics and compared with that of their proband.
Three sibling subtypes of cognitive function were distinguished: ‘normal’, ‘mixed’, and ‘impaired’. Normal profile siblings (n= 192) were unimpaired on cognitive tests, in contrast to their proband (n= 184). Mixed profile siblings (n= 228) and their probands (n= 222) had a more similar performance pattern. Impaired profile siblings had poorer functional outcomes (n= 234), and their profile was almost identical to that of their proband (n= 223). Probands with cognitively impaired siblings could be distinguished from other schizophrenia patients by their own cognitive performance. They also had poorer clinical characteristics, including achievement of symptomatic remission.
Unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia are heterogeneous with respect to cognitive function. The poorer the cognitive profile of the sibling, the higher the level of correspondence with the proband. The sibling's cognitive subtype was predictive for disease course in the proband. Distinguishing cognitive subtypes of unaffected siblings may be of relevance for genetic studies.
This study evaluated mindfulness - based cognitive therapy (MBCT), a group intervention on obesity and it’psychological consequences.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group treatment derived from mindfulness based stress reduction(MBSR) developed by JonKabat-Zinn and colleagues.MBSR uses training in mindfulness meditation as the core of the program. MBCT incorporates cognitive strategies and has been found effective in reducing relapse in patients with major depression (Teasdale,Segal& Williams).This study is a kind of pseudo-experimental pre-test - post test and the control group. for this study, 16 patients (experimental group) of obese method selected samples were exposed on for a group training MBCT, during the eight-hour meeting. in the second group of 17 people available methods of obesity among people who receive the program clinic diet feeding had referred, and the third group were selected as the control group were considered. It is described in three factors: Age, sex and intelligence were matched. This started before the intervention sample (MBCT and diet or receiving), and then questionnaires depression, anxiety and stress (DASS), self-esteem, eating attitudes and eating disorders responded one month after the intervention again questionnaires to evaluate the stability of these results responded.Control group without any intervention training and completed the questionnaire. results showed that MBCT in reducing obesity(F = 6.28, depression(F = 14.37), anxiety(F= and stress is effective and follow-up results of a stability-month results shows.
The purpose of this survey has been studying the status of working memory and the ability of retrieval specific memory materials from autobiographical memory among PTSD veteran's young children.
The sample contains 131 high school students in 3 groups: PTSD and non-PTSD veteran's young children and young children of healthy person. They are somewhat controlled in the age and academic performance.Research instrument, were including: Beck Depression Inventory, SpielbergerState-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the index of working memory of Wechsler III Test, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Data analysis has been done by the method of descriptive statistics, One way Analysis Of Variance, Scheffe Fallow-up Test.
The results indicate that PTSD veteran's children have lower performance in working and autobiographical memory tasks than healthy person's children have shown. The research also indicates that the state of depression and anxiety in PTSD veteran's children is higher than healthy person's children, while in these 3 components (working memory, autobiographical memory, and anxiety) between PTSD veteran's children and Non-PTSD veteran's children there is no significant differences but in the depression component there was a significantdifference between them. Other research findings have shown that Non-PTSD veteran's children compared with healthy person's children have lower performance in working memory tasks, while in autobiographical memory tasks there was no significant difference, between these two groups. Levels of anxiety in Non-PTSD veteran's children were lower than healthy person's children, there is no significant difference between them in depression.
Neurocognitive aspects and cognitive processes can be done in future.
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of agreement among parents and teachers with respect to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF).
A total of 800 randomly selected children (400 boys, 400 girls) aged 7–11 years (mean age 9.28, SD 1.42) were assessed using CBCL and TRF parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and teachers completed the Teacher's Report Form (TRF). Approximately 98% of the respondents were listed as the mothers and 2% as the fathers. for the TRF, 100% of the respondents were child's teacher. Analyses was included degree of concordance of ratings as a function of informant and child gender. the collected data were analyzed using pearson Coefficient of Correlation.
Coefficient of correlation showed low to moderate agreement among informants (parent-teacher) (r = 0/39). Furthermore the correlation of scores on the externalizing scale were generally significantly higher (p < 0/01) than the scores on the internalizing scale for parent-teacher correlation. There were no significant effects of gender on concordance among Ratings.
The results indicated that correspondences between parent and teacher ratings of behavioral and emotional problems across home and school settings differ. This difference is at least partly due to the situation specific behavior of children. Externalizing behaviors, in general, are more easily noticeable than internalizing behaviors, which partially explains why there tends to be greater correlation between raters on externalizing behavior. This Results help to gain a greater understanding of how the perception of child behavior varies between raters.
Multimorbidity may impose an overwhelming burden on patients with psychosis and is affected by gender and age. Our aim is to study the independent role of familial liability to psychosis as a risk factor for multimorbidity.
We performed the study within the framework of the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) project. Overall, we compared 1024 psychotic patients, 994 unaffected siblings and 566 controls on the prevalence of 125 lifetime diseases, and 19 self-reported somatic complaints. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more complaints/diseases in the same individual. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) were used to investigate the effects of gender, age (adolescent, young, older) and familial liability (patients, siblings, controls) and their interactions on multimorbidity.
Familial liability had a significant effect on multimorbidity of either complaints or diseases. Patients had a higher prevalence of multimorbidity of complaints compared to siblings (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.79–2.69, P < 0.001) and to controls (3.05, 2.35–3.96, P < 0.001). In physical health multimorbidity, patients (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05–1.75, P = 0.018), but not siblings, had significantly higher prevalence than controls. Similar finding were observed for multimorbidity of lifetime diseases, including psychiatric diseases. Significant results were observed for complaints and disease multimorbidity across gender and age groups.
Multimorbidity is a common burden, significantly more prevalent in patients and their unaffected siblings. Familial liability to psychosis showed an independent effect on multimorbidity; gender and age are also important factors determining multimorbidity.
Resilience as a capacity to withstand stress and calamity is one of the important components of mental health and aggressive is a negative behaviour that can threaten human health. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between resilience with aggression and hostility in university students. The research method is correlation, 155 university students were selected by convenience sampling method and responded to Corner & Davidson resilience questionnaires and Boos & Perry aggression and hostility questionnaire. The data were analysed by correlation formula. The results showed that there is a significant and negative correlation between resilience with aggression and hostility, which means when the score of resilience is high, people's aggression and hostility decreases. Therefore, it is recommended to increase the resilience of people by specific teaching programs to reduce the basis of aggression and hostility.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.