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Globally, semi-arid lands (SALs) are home to approximately one billion people, including some of the poorest and least food secure. These regions will be among the hardest hit by the impacts of climate change. This article urges governments and their development partners to put SAL inhabitants and their activities at the heart of efforts to support adaptation and climate resilient development, identifying opportunities to capitalize on the knowledge, institutions, resources and practices of SAL populations in adaptation action.
The bifurcation of two-dimensional gravity–capillary waves into solitary waves when the phase velocity and group velocity are nearly equal is investigated in the presence of constant vorticity. We found that gravity–capillary solitary waves with decaying oscillatory tails exist in deep water in the presence of vorticity. Furthermore we found that the presence of vorticity influences strongly (i) the solitary wave properties and (ii) the growth rate of unstable transverse perturbations. The growth rate and bandwidth instability are given numerically and analytically as a function of the vorticity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In the context of skeletal muscle, IL-6 plays a major role in muscle quality. The goal of this project was to study the influence of systemic IL-6 on skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology, most notably mitochondrial function (respiration and ROS production) and mitochondrial content. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To determine the influence of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on skeletal muscle mitochondria, high-resolution respirometry was performed to simultaneously measure oxygen consumption (JO2) and ROS production in differentiated myotubes incubated with increasing IL-6 (0, 10, 50, 100 ng/mL) for 18 hours in serum free conditions. To evaluate the impact of IL-6 on mitochondrial content we performed western blots on cell lysates from treated cells, measuring proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) using a cocktail antibody and PGC-1α/PGC-1ß for mitochondrial biogenesis. To determine the role of mitochondrial ROS production on JO2 and mitochondrial content, we co-treated differentiated myotubes for 18 hours with 50 and 100ng/mL IL-6 and the mitochondrial specific antioxidant, MitoQ and performed respirometry for mitochondrial functional measurements and western blots for mitochondrial content.Statistical significance was evaluated by using a 2-tailed Student’s t-test and two-way ANOVA. Post hoc all-group analyses were conducted to determine which groups were different when the model was significant. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mitochondrial functional measurements show increased JO2 and increased ROS production in an IL-6 dose-dependent manner. Targeting mitochondrial ROS production with 0.5µm MitoQ attenuated IL-6 induced increases in JO2 and ROS production. Complexes I and II (CI, CII) of the ETC increased significantly in an IL-6 dose-wise fashion, and co-treatment with MitoQ normalized increases at 100ng/mL Il-6. 100ng/mL IL-6 significantly increased protein expression of PGC-1α and PGC-1ß. Co-treatment with MitoQ normalized IL-6 induced increase in PGC-1α. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our data suggest that when treated chronically at a high dose, IL-6 increases mitochondrial respiration, ROS production, and content. Targeting mitochondrial ROS production normalizes these mitochondrial adaptations. The present study provides new insights into mitochondrial physiology in the context of inflammation. Therapeutically targeting mitochondrial ROS production may impact skeletal muscle quality in certain populations.
Since 2013, hoarding disorder has been recognised as a standalone diagnosis in the DSM, affecting an estimated 2–6% of the general population. This article outlines the arguments for and against this separate classification and considers the differentiation of hoarding disorder from normative collecting. It then discusses aetiology, assessment, course and treatment (both psychological and pharmacological interventions). It concludes with a discussion of ethical and legal considerations, in particular the fact that the inclusion of hoarding disorder as a distinct diagnosis in DSM-5 confers specific protections for people with the disorder under the Equality Act 2010.
• Be able to define the criteria of hoarding disorder
• Be able to recognise the difference between hoarding and collecting
• Understand potential treatment options for patients with hoarding disorder
To systematically review the literature on barriers to the use of clozapine and identify any interventions for optimizing clozapine use in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Journal databases were searched from 1972 to March 2018. The following search terms were used: treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine, barriers, use, prescription rates, implementation, clozaril and prescribing practices. Following a review of the literature, 15 papers were included in the review.
The major barriers that were identified included mandatory blood testing, fear of serious side-effects and lack of adherence by the patients, difficulty in identifying suitable patients, service fragmentation, and inadequate training in or exposure to using clozapine.
In view of consistent evidence across the studies on inadequate knowledge and skills as a significant barrier, we suggest that a certification requiring competence in initiating and managing side-effects of clozapine becomes a mandatory requirement in training programmes.
A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope of two-dimensional gravity–capillary waves propagating at the free surface of a vertically sheared current of constant vorticity is derived. In this paper we extend to gravity–capillary wave trains the results of Thomas et al. (Phys. Fluids, 2012, 127102) and complete the stability analysis and stability diagram of Djordjevic & Redekopp (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 79, 1977, pp. 703–714) in the presence of vorticity. The vorticity effect on the modulational instability of weakly nonlinear gravity–capillary wave packets is investigated. It is shown that the vorticity modifies significantly the modulational instability of gravity–capillary wave trains, namely the growth rate and instability bandwidth. It is found that the rate of growth of modulational instability of short gravity waves influenced by surface tension behaves like pure gravity waves: (i) in infinite depth, the growth rate is reduced in the presence of positive vorticity and amplified in the presence of negative vorticity; (ii) in finite depth, it is reduced when the vorticity is positive and amplified and finally reduced when the vorticity is negative. The combined effect of vorticity and surface tension is to increase the rate of growth of modulational instability of short gravity waves influenced by surface tension, namely when the vorticity is negative. The rate of growth of modulational instability of capillary waves is amplified by negative vorticity and attenuated by positive vorticity. Stability diagrams are plotted and it is shown that they are significantly modified by the introduction of the vorticity.
During the period from April to September for the years 2014–2016, 998 swordfishes caught by the Moroccan artisanal longline fishery in the Strait of Gibraltar were sampled to study the reproduction of this species in this mixing area between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic. The results showed that the sex ratio is slightly in favour of males for sizes smaller than 130 cm LJFL (Lower jaw-fork length), whereas females are more numerous in sizes larger than 140 cm LJFL. Fifty per cent of females were estimated to be mature at 170 cm LJFL, while for males, the size at first maturity was estimated to be 95 cm LJFL. The swordfish spawn from June to September, probably in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of this study suggest that the reproductive characteristics of swordfish caught in the Strait of Gibraltar are similar to those of the Mediterranean swordfish, and a high mixing rate between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic stocks occurs in the study area.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene has attracted high interest in the electronics industry due to its potential scalability for large-scale production. However, producing a homogeneous thin-film graphene with minimal defects remains a challenge. Studies of processing parameters, such as gas precursors, flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and substrate types, focus on improving the chemical aspect of the deposition. Despite the many reports on such parameters, studies on fluid dynamic aspects also need to be considered since they are crucial factors in scaling up the system for homogenous deposition. Once the deposition kinetics is thoroughly understood, the next vital step is fluid dynamics optimization to design a large-scale system that could deliver the gas uniformly and ensure maximum deposition rate with the desired property. In this review, the influence of fluid dynamics in graphene CVD process was highlighted. The basics and importance of CVD fluid dynamics was introduced. It is understood that the fluid dynamics of gases can be controlled in two ways: via reactor modification and gas composition. This paper begins first with discussions on horizontal tubular reactor modifications. This is followed by mechanical properties of the reactant gasses especially in terms of dimensionless Reynolds number which provides information on gas flow regime for graphene CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Data from the previous literature provide the Reynolds number for various gas compositions and its relation to graphene quality. It has been revealed that hydrogen has a major influence on the fluid dynamic conditions within the CVD, hence affecting the quality of the graphene produced. Focusing on atmospheric pressure CVD, suggestions for up-scaling into larger CVD reactors while maintaining similar fluid properties were also provided.
To review the literature to examine the factors that may be affecting recruitment into psychiatry in the UK. We systematically searched four databases to identify studies from 1974 to 2016 and identified 27 papers that met the specified inclusion criteria.
Most papers (n = 24) were based on questionnaire surveys. The population in all studies comprised of 1879 psychiatrists, 6733 students and 220746 trainees. About 4–7% of students opt for a career in psychiatry. Enrichment activities helped to attract students more towards psychiatry than just total time spent in the specialty. Job content in terms of the lack of scientific basis, poor prognosis and stigma towards psychiatry, work-related stress and problems with training jobs were common barriers highlighted among students and trainees, affecting recruitment. Job satisfaction and family-friendly status of psychiatry was rated highly by students, with lifestyle factors appearing to be important for trainees who tend to choose psychiatry.
Negative attitudes and stigma towards psychiatry continue to persist. Teaching and training in psychiatry needs rethinking to improve student experience and recruitment into the specialty.
The increasing prevalence of obesity represents a major public health problem, with can effect on physical and emotional well-being and psychosocial function. Somatic and psychological dysfunctions, such as infertility, osteoarthritis, social disabilities caused by stigmatization, sleeping problems or apnea, are also known to follow obesity. Sexual dysfunction (SD) may also be related to obesity, but is rarely mentioned, and may cause concern for the affected individual and partner, constituting a great problem.
The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of SD among obese women.
Our study concerned 42 obese married women consulting in endocrinology department. Obesity was defined by body mass index (BMI) ≥30. All participants assessed a sociodemographic data and the “Female Sexual Function Index” (FSFI). FSFI is a 19-item multidimensional self-reporting measure that quantifies six domains of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. Score ≤26 indicate the presence of FSD.
The mean age was 33.6 years (20 → 47 years). The mean total score of FSFI was 22.5 (3.2 → 32.6). The percentage of SD among obese women was 68.2%. FSFI score was correlated to ancient obesity (P = 0.026; r = 0.347) and waist circumference (P = 0.007; r = 0.412). High socio-economic level was correlated to desire and satisfaction (P = 0.021 and P = 0.048 respectively). Women with high educational level have better blurbification (P = 0.005). FSFI score was not correlated to BMI or obesity class.
Almost two-thirds of obese women have sexual dysfunctions. Women with ancient obesity and higher waist circumference seemed to have better sexual functions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Old people with diabetes are more likely to develop cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. However, the determinants of the association between diabetes and cognitive impairments are only partially known.
To evaluate cognitive disorders in elderly diabetic patients and to identify risk factors of cognitive impairment in this population.
It was a cross-sectional study. It involved outpatients aged 65 and older, who were followed for diabetes in the endocrinology department at the Hedi Chaker University Hospital in Sfax (Tunisia), from October 1 to December 31, 2015. For each patient, we collected sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic data. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to identify mild cognitive decline (score < 26/30).
We identified 70 patients, all with type 2 diabetes. The average age was 66.8 years. The sex ratio (M: F) was 0.7. The mean duration of diabetes was 14.76 years. The average MoCA score was 20.68 ± 6. Forty patients (57%) had cognitive decline. The cognitive impairment was statistically correlated with female sex (P = 0.02), low level of education (P = 0.00), high levels of glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c ≥ 7%) (P = 0.00), presence of hypoglycemic episodes (P = 0.05) and presence of dyslipidemia (P = 0.00).
Our study confirmed the high rate of cognitive decline in older type 2 diabetes patients. The profile of subjects at risk was consistent with the literature: poorly controlled diabetes, severe recurrent hypoglycaemia and associated dyslipidemia. Acting on these risk factors would prevent cognitive decline and therefore progression to dementia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
ADHD is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in children. The worldwide prevalence is estimated to be between 2–18%. The exact cause of ADHD is still unknown, but some factors have been found to increase the risk of having ADHD like increase TV exposure time and video games.
To study the association between time spent on computer tablets (iPads or Android tablets) by children and ADHD.
This cross sectional study targeted children from 3 to 12 years old who use computer tablets. Two non-random sampling techniques were used to distribute self-administered questionnaires to one of the caregivers of 275 children, 36 of them installed an application in their children's computer tablets that measures the actual time spent by the children. The questionnaire contains demographics, validated Arabic ADHD rating scale and questions to assess the parental attitude. The SPSS package was used for statistical analysis.
The results showed that the overall prevalence of ADHD is 22.2% and it is higher in males. There is no statistically significant association between ADHD and all variables except for the time spent on computer tablets, which showed that children using computer tablets more than the average time have an increased chance of having ADHD with an odds ratio of 1.9 with 95% confidence interval from 1.08 to 3.40.
This study shows an association between time spent on computer tablets by children and ADHD. There is need for longitudinal studies to demonstrate the temporality and to confirm the association.
In today's societies, pressures from the idea of thinness are omnipresent and lead to a corporal dissatisfaction with an excessive preoccupation of the body's image. Obese persons are often targets of stigmatization and are vulnerable to negative feeling about their physical appearance.
To evaluate the worries towards the weight and the shape of the body among obese women.
Our study was a transversal study, descriptive and analytic. A total of 42 obese women were included. Obesity was defined by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 and divided into 3 classes: class I: moderate obesity (30 ≤ BMI ≤ 34.9); class II: severe obesity (35 ≤ BMI ≤ 39.9); class III: morbid obesity (BMI≥40). Patients were studied by mean of body shape questionnaire (BSQ-34) (Considering score BSQ < 80 lack of altered body image perception and score > 140 excessive preoccupation).
The mean age of participants was 33.6 years. The average BMI was 37.42 kg/m2 (30.45–56.26 kg/m2). Third (35%) of women had a high educational level, 41.4% were inactive, and 70.8% had an average socioeconomic level.
The average BSQ score was 108.31 (47–188). The majority of women (78.1%) had excessive preoccupation about their body image. The BSQ score was correlated to morbid obesity (P = 0.014). Women aged between 20 and 3 years were significantly more preoccupied about their body image (P = 0.046).
Majority of obese women were preoccupied about their body image. Young women and those having morbid obesity seemed more preoccupied about their body image.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To study the diet of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the Strait of Gibraltar, a total of 176 stomachs were examined from the Moroccan artisanal fishery targeting this species, from April to September 2015. The frequency of occurrence (FO), percentage in number and in weight of prey as well as the per cent index of relative importance of prey (%IRI) were calculated to assess the diet preferences of swordfish in relation to its body size, sex and month. Our findings confirm the opportunistic feeding behaviour of swordfish. The prey items consist primarily of fish (54.6% in number and 82.7% in weight), followed by cephalopod (43.36% in number and 17.25% in weight). The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and the southern shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) are the most important prey, with a % IRI of 47.54 and 35.04%, respectively. The results revealed that there are no significant differences in the diet preferences among sexes and size classes. However, diet composition varied significantly among months. A significant correlation was found between the body length of predator and prey size. The remarkable decrease in the fullness index (fi) from June to August suggests that swordfish were in a spawning condition, with reduced feeding.
To investigate whether medication adherence is monitored during follow-up in out-patient reviews. A retrospective audit was carried out with a sample of 50 follow-up patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Following this, interventions were made prior to the re-audit (including text messaging clinicians and prompt sheets in the out-patient department to encourage adherence discussions).
There was an improvement on all the standards set for this audit following the interventions. More doctors had discussed medication adherence (62% second cycle v. 50% first cycle) with their patient and there was increased discussion and documentation regarding medication side-effects (60% second cycle v. 30% first cycle). More clinicians discussed the response to medication (60% second cycle v. 46% first cycle).
Treatment adherence is not regularly monitored or recorded in clinical notes in routine psychiatric out-patient appointments. This highlights the need for regular training to improve practice.
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most
economically damaging diseases affecting the poultry industry. This group of
extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical
conditions including air-sacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC
is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates and carcass downgrading. In
commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by
vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimising stress conditions,
and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress symptoms in
infected flocks. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common
virulence factors studied in APEC are rarely present in the same isolate,
showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates
may harbour different associations of virulence factors, each able to induce
colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, the pathogenesis of
colibacillosis is poorly understood. The O antigen, a component of the surface
lipopolysaccharide, has been identified as a promising vaccine target. With the
availability of a novel bioconjugation technology it is expected that
multivalent O antigen conjugate vaccines can be produced on an industrial scale.
Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this
economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts.
These include cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination. The
present discusses current knowledge on APEC virulence, host response to
infection and various attempts to develop an effective vaccine
Drought and salinity are two major environmental factors limiting faba bean growth, leading to considerable reduction in their productivity. The WRKY gene family act as major transcription factors that might play an important role in abiotic stress tolerance. In the present study, two partial sequences sharing significant homology with known WRKY genes were isolated from faba bean by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using degenerate primers targeting the well-conserved WRKY domain. The isolated WRKY gene fragments were designated as VfWRKY1 and VfWRKY2 showing 62% similarity between them. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that VfWRKY1 and VfWRKY2 belong to WRKY group I and could be grouped with their orthologues from other plant species. The gene expression profile of VfWRKY1 and VfWRKY2 in faba bean showed that they are significantly accumulated in various plant organs. Further, quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that both transcripts were responsive to drought and salt stress, and also they are genotype dependent, meaning that different faba bean cultivars respond in a different way to drought and salt challenge. The expression patterns obtained suggest the important roles of VfWRKY1 and VfWRKY2 in drought and salt stress response and tolerance. This knowledge might be helpful in the identification of drought-tolerant cultivars and provide potential candidate markers for faba bean breeding in order to develop osmotic-stress-tolerant cultivars.