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The robotic intervention has great potential in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients to regain their lost mobility. In this paper, firstly, we present a design of a novel, 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) upper limb robotic exoskeleton (u-Rob) that features shoulder scapulohumeral rhythm with a wide range of motions (ROM) compared to other existing exoskeletons. An ergonomic shoulder mechanism with two passive DOF was included in the proposed exoskeleton to provide scapulohumeral motion with corresponding full ROM. Also, the joints of u-Rob have more range of motions compared to its existing counterparts. Secondly, we propose a fractional sliding mode control (FSMC) to control u-Rob. Applying the Lyapunov theory to the proposed control algorithm, we showed the stability of it. To control u-Rob, FSMC has shown effectiveness to handle unmodeled dynamics (e.g. friction, disturbance, etc.) in terms of better tracking and chatter compared to traditional SMC.
The dynamic characteristic of rain fade slope is one important factor in determining the availability of a communication system, and it is very useful in the design of fade countermeasures. In the literature, many models were proposed for rain fade slope for earth-to-satellite links. However, there are no models available for rain fade point to point terrestrial microwave links. This paper proposes a new model for the estimation of rain fade slope statistics for terrestrial microwave links in tropical regions. First, the ITU-R model for rain fade slope for earth-to-satellite link was compared with the corresponding statistics obtained from rain attenuation data measured from three terrestrial links in Malaysia. It is found that the expression of its distribution and its standard deviation should be modified. This leads to the derivation of the proposed rain fade slope model based on the statistics of one link. Then, it is tested using the remaining data and its results were very close to the measured statistics for all attenuation levels higher than 1 dB. Moreover, the model was validated using the chi-square goodness-of-fit test.
The International Crimes Tribunals (ICTs) of Bangladesh are exclusively national tribunals, operating under the International Crimes (Tribunals) (Amendment) Act (ICT Act 1973 (amended)). These high powered special international crimes tribunals have been prosecuting and punishing individuals who committed, directly or indirectly, crimes against humanity, genocide, war crimes, and other serious crimes under international law during the Bangladesh war of independence from March to December 1971. Since its establishment in 2010, ICT-1 has been continuing its functions but ICT-2, formed in 2012, functioned until 2015 when its functioning was suspended indefinitely.
Studies on the impact of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting (RDIF) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among healthy Muslims observing Ramadan month have yielded contradictory results. This comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to obtain a more stable estimate of the effect size of fasting during Ramadan on the MetS components, examine variability among studies, assess the generalisability of reported results and perform subgroup analyses for associated factors. We searched the CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, ProQuest Medical, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science databases for relevant studies published from 1950 to March 2019. The MetS components analysed were: waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma/serum glucose (FG), TAG, and HDL-cholesterol. We identified eighty-five studies (4326 participants in total) that were conducted in twenty-three countries between 1982 and 2019. RDIF-induced effect sizes for the MetS components were: small reductions in WC (no. of studies K = 24, N 1557, Hedges’ g = −0·312, 95 % CI −0·387, −0·236), SBP (K = 22, N 1172, Hedges’ g = −0·239, 95 % CI −0·372, −0·106), FG (K = 51, N 2318, Hedges’ g = −0·101, 95 % CI −0·260, 0·004) and TAG (K = 63, N 2862, Hedges’ g = −0·088, 95 % CI −0·171, −0·004) and a small increase in HDL-cholesterol (K = 57, N 2771, Hedges’ g = 0·150, 95 % CI 0·064, 0·236). We concluded that among healthy people, RDIF shows small improvement in the five MetS components: WC, SBP, TAG, FG and HDL.
A simple and facile stereolithography 3D printing technique was utilized to fabricate piezoelectric photopolymer-based polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends. Different process variables, such as solvent (N,N-dimethylformamide, DMF) to PVDF ratio and PVDF solution to photopolymer resin (PR) ratio, were engineered to enhance the dispersion of the PVDF into the PR so as to achieve the maximum piezoelectric coupling coefficient. Our results demonstrate that a ratio of 1:10 (PVDF:DMF) and 2 wt%-PVDF/PR was optimal for the best dissolution of the PVDF, 3D printability, and piezoelectric properties. Under these conditions, the blend generated ±0.121 nA under 80 N dynamic loading excitation. We believe that the findings of this work would promote many further studies on the mass production of flexible piezoelectric polymer blends with higher quality finished surface and design flexibility.
Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet relatively little is known about the factors that govern the hour-by-hour experience and expression of social anxiety in the real world.
Here we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms.
Leveraging data from over 11 000 real-world assessments, our results highlight the central role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. The presence of such close companions was associated with enhanced mood, yet socially anxious individuals had fewer confidants and spent less time with the close companions that they do have. Although higher levels of social anxiety were associated with a general worsening of mood, socially anxious individuals appear to derive larger benefits – lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression – from their close companions. In contrast, variation in social anxiety was unrelated to the amount of time spent with strangers, co-workers, and acquaintances; and we uncovered no evidence of emotional hypersensitivity to these less-familiar individuals.
These findings provide a framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety in emerging adulthood and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
Research on twinning in developed countries is well documented, but little is known about twinning in less-developed countries due to a lack of data or data limitations. This study examined the level of, trends in and determinants of twin births and their survival under age five in Jordan, using the 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) data. The birth history of 11,352 women included in the JPFHS provided information on 9859 live births that occurred within five years of the survey date, and these constituted the study subjects. Descriptive statistics, and bivariate and multivariate multilevel logistic regression models were used for data analysis. About 3.5% of the total live births were twins, which is one of the highest rates in developing countries. The twinning rate showed an increasing trend in Jordan, increasing by 45% from 2.4% in 1990 to 3.5% in 2012. Higher maternal age at child birth, higher parity, poor and richer economic status, contraceptive use status, secondary and above level of education of mothers and non-consanguinity were found to be associated with a higher rate of twin births in Jordan. Twins were observed to have a higher risk of low birth weight, being smaller in physical size at birth and at more than four times higher risk of neonatal death compared with singletons. To reduce the risk adverse outcomes of twin pregnancies and further improve maternal and child health, antenatal, delivery and postnatal care should be tailored towards the special needs of twin pregnancies and twin births in Jordan Twin pregnancies should be detected at the early stage of pregnancy so that perinatal outcomes can be improved by frequent prenatal visits, health education, counselling and proper management of peripartum complications.
The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
To obtain projections of the prevalence of childhood malnutrition indicators up to 2030 and to analyse the changes of wealth-based inequality in malnutrition indicators and the degree of contribution of socio-economic determinants to the inequities in malnutrition indicators in Bangladesh. Additionally, to identify the risk factors of childhood malnutrition.
Cross-sectional study. A Bayesian linear regression model was used to estimate trends and projections of malnutrition. For equity analysis, slope index, relative index and decomposition in concentration index were used. Multilevel logistic models were used to identify risk factors of malnutrition.
Household surveys in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014.
Children under the age of 5 years.
A decreasing trend was observed for all malnutrition indices. In 1990, predicted prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight was 55·0, 15·9 and 61·8 %, respectively. By 2030, prevalence is projected to reduce to 28·8 % for stunting, 12·3 % for wasting and 17·4 % for underweight. Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight were 34·3, 6·9 and 32·8 percentage points lower in the richest households than the poorest households. Contribution of the wealth index to child malnutrition increased over time and the largest contribution of pro-poor inequity was explained by wealth index. Being an underweight mother, parents with a lower level of education and poorer households were the key risk factors for stunting and underweight.
Our findings show an evidence-based need for targeted interventions to improve education and household income-generating activities among poor households to reduce inequalities and reduce the burden of child malnutrition in Bangladesh.
The aim of this study was to examine the gender differential effects of eating habits and physical activity on overweight and obesity among school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data extracted from the 2014 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were utilized. The survey collected information related to physical and mental health from 2989 school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. An exploratory data analysis and multivariate logistic regression model were employed in this study. Female adolescents were at a lower risk of being overweight or obese (AOR=0.573) than males, with a prevalence of 7.4% (males: 9.9%). The results showed that high consumption of vegetables (both: AOR=0.454; males: AOR=0.504; females: AOR=0.432), high soft drink consumption (both: AOR=2.357; males: AOR=2.929; females: AOR=1.677), high fast food consumption (both: AOR=2.777; males: AOR=6.064; females: AOR=1.695), sleep disturbance (both: AOR=0.675; males: AOR=0.590; females: AOR=0.555) and regular walking or cycling to school (both: AOR=0.472; males: AOR=0.430; females: AOR=0.557) were vital influencing factors for being overweight or obese among adolescents for both sexes. Sedentary activities during leisure time were also identified as significant predictors of being overweight or obese for males. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption, the avoidance of soft drinks and fast food, an increase in vigorous physical activity, regular attendance at physical education classes and fewer sedentary leisure time activities could all help reduce the risk of being overweight or obese for both sexes.
Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
A compact planar ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with WiMAX and WLAN notched band is presented in this paper. The presented antenna consists of a rectangular patch and slotted partial ground plane and fed by a microstrip feed line. The volumetric size of the antenna is 30 mm × 22 mm × 1.6 mm. Method of moment-based simulation technology is used to simulate and analyze the characteristics of the antenna. To generate two notch bands at WiMAX and WLAN, a pair of parasitic resonator is placed beneath the radiating patch. The presented antenna achieves an operating band (VSWR ≤2) ranging from 2.98 to 12 GHz with an average gain of 3.95 dBi along with considerable efficiency and symmetric radiation patterns. Moreover, the antenna exhibits two notch bands at 3.5 and 5.45 GHz and is able to avoid possible interference with pre-existing narrow band services. The proposed antenna is low cost and low profile and is modeled to be used as a transceiver in UWB communication applications.
Dromedary camels have been shown to be the main reservoir for human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) infections. This systematic review aims to compile and analyse all published data on MERS-coronavirus (CoV) in the global camel population to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections in dromedary camels. We included original research articles containing laboratory evidence of MERS-CoV infections in dromedary camels in the field from 2013 to April 2018. In general, camels only show minor clinical signs of disease after being infected with MERS-CoV. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV in camels has been found in 20 countries, with molecular evidence for virus circulation in 13 countries. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies increases with age in camels, while the prevalence of viral shedding as determined by MERS-CoV RNA detection in nasal swabs decreases. In several studies, camels that were sampled at animal markets or quarantine facilities were seropositive more often than camels at farms as well as imported camels vs. locally bred camels. Some studies show a relatively higher seroprevalence and viral detection during the cooler winter months. Knowledge of the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV is essential to develop intervention and control measures to prevent human infections.
Disasters occur rarely but have significant adverse consequences when they do. Recent statistics suggest that millions of lives and billions of US dollars have been lost in the last decade due to disaster events globally. It is crucial that hospitals are well prepared for disasters to minimize their effects. This integrative review study evaluates the preparedness level of hospitals in the Middle East for disasters using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The key terms include disaster preparedness OR disaster management OR emergency response AND Middle East AND hospitals. The study reviews articles published between January 2005 and December 2015, which focused on the hospitals’ preparedness for disasters in the Middle East nations. Based on their meeting 5 eligibility criteria, 19 articles were included in the review. Twelve of the articles focused on both natural and man-made disasters, whereas 6 of them were based on mass casualty events and 1 on earthquake. Thirteen of the reviewed articles ranked the level of preparedness of hospitals for disasters to be generally “very poor,” “poor,” or “moderate,” whereas 6 reported that hospitals were “well” or “very well prepared” for disasters. Factors affecting preparedness level were identified as a lack of contingency plans and insufficient availability of resources, among others. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:806–816).
In this work a simple method to solve the kinematics of the 5-R
UR parallel manipulator is introduced. Dealing with the displacement analysis, the kinematic constraint equations required to address the forward–inverse displacement analysis are established according to linear combinations of two vectors attached to the moving platform. Then, besides the solution of the inverse displacement analysis two strategies are proposed in order to solve the forward position analysis. Finally, the input–output equations of velocity and acceleration are systematically obtained by resorting to reciprocal-screw theory. Numerical examples are provided with the purpose to illustrate the proposed method. Furthermore, the numerical results obtained by means of screw theory are confirmed with the aid of commercially available software.
To investigate the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of household-level mother–child double burden (MCDB) of malnutrition in Bangladesh.
The analysis was done using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014 data. Multivariable logistic regression identified the sociodemographic factors associated with double-burden households.
Nationally representative cross-sectional survey.
A total of 5951 households were included in the analysis.
A coexistence of overweight or obese mother and underweight or stunted or wasted child (OWOBM/USWC) was found in 6·3 % households. The prevalence of overweight or obese mother and underweight child (OWOBM/UWC) was 3·8 %, of overweight or obese mother and stunted child (OWOBM/STC) was 4·7 %, and of overweight or obese mother and wasted child (OWOBM/WSC) was 1·7 %. Mother’s age 21–25 years at first birth, middle wealth index group, having two or three children and having four or more children showed statistically significant (P<0·05) associations with OWOBM/UWC. Households with mother’s age 21–25 years at first birth, middle wealth index group, no exposure to information media, having two or three children and having four or more children had higher odds of OWOBM/STC and OWOBM/USWC which were statistically significant (P<0·05). Delivery of child through caesarean section was significantly associated with OWOBM/USWC (P<0·05).
Although the prevalence of MCDB of malnutrition in Bangladesh is low, prevention programmes must consider the nutrition concerns of the entire household to prevent future risks. Such programmes also need to be tagged with family planning and increasing awareness through social and behaviour change counselling and exposure to information media.