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Juvenile spondyloarthropathy is an umbrella term for a group of childhood rheumatic diseases that can cause chronic arthritis extending to the axial skeleton before the age of 16. Although ankylosing spondylitis has aortic involvement as one of its most important effects, this relationship has not been extensively studied in children with juvenile spondyloarthropathy. Here, a cross-sectional study of the elastic properties of the aorta of 43 patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathy and 19 healthy controls is reported. Aortic stiffness assessed by echocardiography was used to predict the presence of aortitis, supplemented by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler indices. The right ventricular fractional area change was found to be significantly lower in the patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathy than in the healthy controls; aortic strain and distensibility were also significantly lower, and aortic stiffness index β was significantly higher; and the aortic root diameter change was significantly lower. According to HLA-B27 positivity, there was no difference in the stiffness parameters between the two groups. There was a significant correlation between juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and aortic diameter change, between juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and aortic stiffness. Thus, juvenile spondyloarthropathy is linked to high aortic stiffness parameters.
An entity mention in text such as “Washington” may correspond to many different named entities such as the city “Washington D.C.” or the newspaper “Washington Post.” The goal of named entity disambiguation (NED) is to identify the mentioned named entity correctly among all possible candidates. If the type (e.g., location or person) of a mentioned entity can be correctly predicted from the context, it may increase the chance of selecting the right candidate by assigning low probability to the unlikely ones. This paper proposes cluster-based mention typing for NED. The aim of mention typing is to predict the type of a given mention based on its context. Generally, manually curated type taxonomies such as Wikipedia categories are used. We introduce cluster-based mention typing, where named entities are clustered based on their contextual similarities and the cluster ids are assigned as types. The hyperlinked mentions and their context in Wikipedia are used in order to obtain these cluster-based types. Then, mention typing models are trained on these mentions, which have been labeled with their cluster-based types through distant supervision. At the NED phase, first the cluster-based types of a given mention are predicted and then, these types are used as features in a ranking model to select the best entity among the candidates. We represent entities at multiple contextual levels and obtain different clusterings (and thus typing models) based on each level. As each clustering breaks the entity space differently, mention typing based on each clustering discriminates the mention differently. When predictions from all typing models are used together, our system achieves better or comparable results based on randomization tests with respect to the state-of-the-art levels on four defacto test sets.
This study aims to present the environmental performance of agriculture in Turkey, focusing on the post-2000 period, and to evaluate the agri-environmental support instruments in Turkey in light of the data obtained. According to the findings, it can be asserted that, in spite of several positive developments, Turkey’s agriculture seems to be far from sustainable. The number of farmers and the extent of the agricultural land aided by the support instruments account for very small portions of the total figures. At the same time, the amount of support provided to producers also has a very small share of the total agricultural support. Considering the findings about agri-environmental performance and agri-environmental support instruments together, we suggest that while the use of these support instruments is a positive step, the supports have not had an impact on inducing a green transition in agriculture yet. Uncertainties caused by legislative changes, amounts of support falling short of the cost of a green transition in agriculture, lack of knowledge and training activities regarding environment-friendly agricultural methods, and lack of effective organization of agricultural producers are thought to be among the reasons for this result.
The fifth chapter offers an interpretive approach to Shihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī’s account of causality. It also examines how he establishes freedom in the created order in accordance with his understanding of causality. It is argued that Suhrawardī’s writings suggest a participatory account of causality. The chapter first examines some salient aspects of Suhrawardī’s ontology that are relevant to our discussion. The second section rethinks the question of causality with respect to Suhrawardī’s ontology. The third section discusses the question of freedom and the responsibility of moral agents in relation to Suhrawardī’s theory of causality.
The ninth chapter examines Mullā Ṣadrā’s account of causality and freedom. It is argued that Ṣadrā’s rich metaphysical treatment of the concept of existence establishes causal efficacy and freedom of entities through the expansion of and participation in existence. The chapter also includes a discussion of the significance of the concept of essence in Ṣadrā’s metaphysics and how this concept is central to his notion of freedom in the created order.
The first chapter focuses on early Muʿtazilite and Ashʿarite theologians. It examines the birth and development of Ashʿarite occasionalism as a response to the Muʿtazilite theological project which aims to preserve the intelligibility of the world and God and, to this end, is ready to accept the idea of necessity in the world and, even, in God. The modus operandi of Ashʿarite theological project in this context remains to preserve the divine will and freedom. This, then, leads to construction of, what I call, a theology of possibility. It is within the larger context of this debate that occasionalist theory of causality emerges as the cornerstone of Ashʿarite theology of possibility. The chapter starts with an examination of early Ashʿarite and Muʿtazilite discussions about the relationship of the divine attributes to God. It then shows how these discussions led to the emergence of Ashʿarite occasionalism. Finally, it explores how the occasionalist perspective provided the basis for Ashʿarite convictions on other important cosmological and theological discussions.
The concluding chapter includes an analysis of some of the salient features of the occasionalist and participatory accounts of causation. It summarizes both the continuities and discontinuities identified in the preceding chapters. It also suggests that the participatory approach to causality presents another strong current in the Islamic intellectual tradition, alongside with the occasionalist tradition, with its distinct characteristics and advantages.
The seventh chapter focuses on later developments in Sufi metaphysics concerning the question of causality and freedom. It examines writings of two influential followers of Ibn ʿArabī: Qūnawī and Qayṣarī. It will be argued that both Qūnawī and Qayṣarī agree with Ibn ʿArabī in their construction of causal efficacy and freedom of entities. What distinguishes both Qūnawī and Qayṣarī is their attempt to understand certain ideas attributed to the Philosophers and Ashʿarites in light of Ibn ʿArabī’s articulation of the concepts of existence (wujūd) and essence (māhiyya). Their writings include references both to the ideas of the Philosophers, such as secondary causality and emanationism, and to the ideas of Ashʿarites, such continuous creation, accidents, and “preponderance without reason” (tarjīh bi-lā murajjih). These thinkers selectively appropriate these ideas defended by different schools by using the philosophical possibilities suggested by the concepts of existence and essence. The result is a critical re-interpretation of emanationist and occasionalist elements within the larger framework of Ibn ʿArabī's metaphysics.
The tenth chapter focuses on a contemporary approach to causality. Here, I offer a detailed survey of Said Nursi’s account of causality. Nursi’s neo-occasionalism makes original contributions to Ashʿarite occasionalist metaphysics of causation while integrating it with Ibn ‘Arabī’s theory of Divine Self-Disclosure. As such, his theory of causality suggests an interesting meeting point of kalām and Sufi metaphysics. He also defends and emphasizes the idea of disproportionality of cause and effect in an unprecedented way in the history of Islamic occasionalism. The chapter also analyzes Nursi’s treatment of free will and theodicy.
The fourth chapter examines Ibn Rushd’s account of causality. It will be argued that Ibn Rushd’s theory of causality comes very close to Neo-Platonistic participatory accounts, despite his strong Aristotelian tendencies. Ibn Rushd, like Ibn Sīnā, finds the basis of causal efficacy of entities in their participation in the pure existence-act of the First. The most important implication of this understanding of causality is that despite the occasionalist critique that we do not and cannot observe a necessary connection between cause and effect, for Ibn Rushd, the moment one defines existence as pure act, it metaphysically makes more sense to accept causal efficacy of entities, for they participate in the pure existence-act of the First. The chapter also examines the differences between Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Rushd that stem from the latter’s efforts to address some of Ghazālī’s challenges. Ibn Rushd agrees with Ghazālī in that plurality can emanate from the First without emanationist intermediation and solely based on the nature-capacity-form of beings. This view establishes a closer connection between the First’s existence-act and the world than Ibn Sīnā’s metaphysics allows.
The eighth chapter focuses on the thought of Jurjānī to understand later developments in the occasionalist tradition. Jurjānī was one of the most important Ashʿarite theologians who transformed occasionalism from a theory of causality into the central axis of all theological thinking. The notion of possibility made central by Ashʿarite occasionalism became the modus operandi for thinking about questions from prophetology and eschatology to theodicy and free will. More importantly, Jurjānī develops a critical philosophy of science to appropriate and criticize Aristotelian-Ptolemaic-Avicennian natural philosophy/sciences. An examination of this attempt reveals the complex relationship of Ashʿarite occasionalism with medieval natural philosophy and sciences.
The third chapter introduces Ghazālī’s and Rāzī’s responses to Ibn Sīnā’s theological and cosmological challenges to the occasionalist worldview. Ghazālī’s response is heavily influenced by Ashʿarite theology’s emphasis on the divine will and freedom. In this discussion, Ghazālī harkens back to the earlier Ashʿarite tradition, offers novel applications of old arguments, and raises important challenges to Ibn Sīnā. Rāzī, on the other hand, formulates a list of arguments for the defense of Ashʿarite cosmology based on a discrete and atomistic model of the universe. Rāzī’s atomistic arguments can be seen as a novel development in the occasionalist tradition. Rāzī’s use of Euclidian geometry for and against atomism also led to emergence of an occasionalist philosophy of science marked by pragmatic and sceptic attitude towards dominant scientific models.
The introduction presents main research questions, key concepts, and methodology. It introduces some of the reasons that make questions about causality and freedom fundamentally important for any religious tradition in general and Islamic tradition in particular. It discusses the reasons for the selection of thinkers examined in the book. It also provides short introductions to Platonic, Neo-Platonic, Aristotelian, and occasionalist accounts of causality to help the reader better understand the spectrum of ideas about causality and freedom examined in this book.
The sixth chapter offers a way of approaching the question of causality in Ibn ʿArabī’s metaphysical system. Ibn ʿArabī’s metaphysics is relational in the sense that entities are comprehended as the totality of their relationships to God. The divine names are theological categories denoting these relations. It is processual in that it perceives the world as the multiplicity of the incessant and ever-changing manifestations of the divine qualities. The world is recreated anew at each moment and entities are societies of divine acts or theophanies. In this framework, causal power is attributed to God, and causality refers to the regularity and predictability of the related theophanic individualities. The relational and processual qualities of Ibn ʿArabī metaphysics allow him to integrate participatory and occasionalist perspectives on causality. The chapter also examines how Ibn ʿArabī uses the idea of participation and the fixed archetypes (al-aʿyān thābita) to establish freedom.