With the development of embryo technologies, such as in vitro fertilization, cloning and transgenesis, cryopreservation of mammalian gametes and embryos has acquired a particular interest. Despite a certain success, various cryopreservation techniques often cause significant morphological and biochemical alterations, which lead to the disruption of cell organelles, cytoskeleton damages, cell death and loss of embryo viability. Ultrastructural studies confirm high sensitivity of the cell membrane and organelle membrane to freezing and thawing. It was found that many substances with low molecular weights have a protective action against cold-induced damage. In this concern, an anti-freeze protein (AFP) and anti-freeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), which occur at extremely high concentrations in fish that live in Arctic waters and protect them against freezing, may be of potential interest for cryostorage of animal embryos at ultra-low temperatures. This mini-review briefly describes several models of AFP/AFGP action to preserve cells against chilling-induced damages and indicates several ways to improve post-thaw developmental potential of the embryo.