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Eighteen Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated to 5 days of either: saline injections; gentamicin injections; or pomegranate extract (100 µl/day via gavage) plus gentamicin injections. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions were tested before treatment and on day 3. After treatment, reactive oxygen species levels were measured in each rat's right cochlea and right kidney via chemiluminescence.
Baseline emission amplitudes were similar. Post-treatment emissions differed significantly in the two treatment groups (p < 0.001). Cochlear reactive oxygen species levels were significantly higher in the gentamicin group (mean ± standard deviation, 316.6 ± 36.5 relative light units per mg) than the gentamicin plus pomegranate extract group (240 ± 24.6 relative light units per mg) (p = 0.004); control group levels were 119.1 ± 10.3 relative light units per mg. Renal reactive oxygen species levels were similar for the control and gentamicin plus pomegranate extract groups (p = 0.59) but much higher in the gentamicin group (p = 0.004).
Concurrent systemic pomegranate extract administration reduced reactive oxygen species level increases and otoacoustic emission changes, following aminoglycoside injection.
To investigate the relationship between development of laryngeal cancer and the presence of polymorphisms of the MnSOD Val16Ala, CAT-262 C < T and GPx1 Pro198Leu genes in a smoking population.
Patients and methods:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined in DNA from the peripheral blood erythrocytes of 48 heavy smokers (25 patients with laryngeal cancer and 23 cancer-free controls), using polymerase chain reaction.
There were no significant differences in age, smoking duration or smoking intensity, comparing the two groups. The homozygous AA genotype of MnSOD Val16Ala was significantly more prevalent in the cancer group than the control group (92 vs 13 per cent, respectively), while the heterozygous AV genotype of MnSOD Val16Ala was more prevalent in the control group than the cancer group (87 vs 8 per cent, respectively) (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the cancer and control groups regarding GPx1 Pro198Leu or CAT-262 C < T polymorphisms.
Polymorphism of the MnSOD Val16Ala gene may contribute to susceptibility to laryngeal cancer among smokers.
To report a case of subdural haematoma occurring as an extremely rare and life-threatening complication of cochlear implantation, and to explore the causative association between intracranial haemorrhage and cochlear implantation surgical techniques. This association has not previously been reviewed in depth.
A three-year-old boy was diagnosed with a large subdural haematoma, one week after cochlear implantation. After emergency evacuation of the haematoma, the patient made an excellent recovery and was discharged from hospital without any neurological deficit.
Mechanisms of injury are discussed and the literature reviewed, focusing on the possible causes of intracranial haemorrhage identified after cochlear implantation. Notably, bone drilling had been used in all reported cases, and the probable causative injury had always occurred after such drilling.
The issue of bone drilling during cochlear implantation is raised, and alternative methods of implant housing suggested, in order to avoid intracranial haemorrhage.
To assess the effect of pomegranate extract on acute inflammation due to myringotomy.
Prospective, randomised study.
Thirty Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group one constituted controls. Group two underwent myringotomy. Group three underwent myringotomy and also received 100 µl/day pomegranate extract, via gavage, one day before and two days after surgery. Following sacrifice 48 hours after myringotomy, the animals' right ears were used to determine the concentration of reactive oxygen species, using the chemiluminescence method; left ears were used for histological study.
Reactive oxygen species levels were significantly decreased in group three compared with group two (p < 0.01). The density of inflammatory cells in group three was significantly less than that in group two (p < 0.01). Lamina propria thickness and vessel density were also significantly decreased in group three compared with group two (p < 0.01).
Our results indicate that oral pomegranate extract decreases reactive oxygen species concentration and acute inflammation in the tympanic membrane after myringotomy.
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