A unique strain of sheep, known to lead the flock, has evolvedwithin the short-tailed, native breed of Iceland sheep. Leadersheep, known for centuries, walk or run in front of the flock, even in bad weather conditions, they may foresee climatic events and are generally very alert and attentive. The high level of intelligence expressed by these sheep is known to be strongly inherited, without being linked to sex, age, colour and otherexternal traits. However, little is known about the genetics of leadersheepper se. Most of them are non-white and horned with a slender body conformation. Since they are endangered with a breeding population of only some 1 000 purebred animals, mostly ewes, conservation measures are in progress, mainly through AI and individual recording. To strengthen these effortsenthusiastic breeders and scientists founded the Leadersheep Society of Iceland in the spring of 2000. While the main aim is to conserve and maintain leadersheep, future possibilities of utilizing their unique characteristicsare being considered.