To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Using about 1,730 probate inventories, this article studies the wealth of peasant farmers in Sweden for the years 1750, 1800, 1850 and 1900. Average wealth grew rapidly, tripling over the nineteenth century, but it did not grow equally: the Gini coefficient for the farmers’ wealth grew from 0.46 in 1750 to 0.73 in 1900. Farmers who lived close to the major grain markets in Stockholm and the mining district of Bergslagen were wealthier than others, as were farmers on fertile plains and, in 1900, those living in coastal areas. Increased market access – in terms of cities and foreign demand – meant that farmers well placed in terms of geography and infrastructure benefited much more than farmers on what became the periphery. The diversity of farmers’ wealth grew, as did their financial sophistication.
To assess the prevalence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among overweight or obese clozapine- or olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients, and to identify characteristics of the schizophrenia group with prediabetes.
A cross-sectional study assessing the presence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2. Procedures were part of the screening process for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating liraglutide vs placebo for improving glucose tolerance. For comparison, an age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy control group without psychiatric illness and prediabetes was included. Prediabetes was defined as elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and/or elevated glycated hemoglobin A1c.
Among 145 schizophrenia patients (age = 42.1 years; males = 59.3%) on clozapine or olanzapine (clozapine/olanzapine/both: 73.8%/24.1%/2.1%), prediabetes was present in 69.7% (101 out of 145). While schizophrenia patients with and without prediabetes did not differ regarding demographic, illness, or antipsychotic treatment variables, metabolic abnormalities (waist circumference: 116.7±13.7 vs 110.1±13.6 cm, P = 0.007; triglycerides: 2.3±1.4 vs 1.6±0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0004) and metabolic syndrome (76.2% vs 40.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with vs without prediabetes. The age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls had significantly better glucose tolerance compared to both groups of patients with schizophrenia. The healthy controls also had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein compared to patients with schizophrenia and prediabetes.
Prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities were highly prevalent among the clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia, putting these patients at great risk for later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results stress the importance of identifying and adequately treating prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.
A focus on misrecognition allows us to move between levels of analysis in a holistic fashion. If misrecognition works through the conscious and the unconscious we can account for the many overlapping insecurities and securities believed to exist at the individual, group, or state level – and thus felt. These insecurities also present themselves through the categories used to describe them and the policies through which they become materialised, technologised, and depoliticised, often by closing down discursive boundaries. Lacan’s concepts of desire, real and lack are here important for understanding the impossibility of recognising something that cannot be recognised. Hence, a perspective that takes misrecognition not as an end result or as failed attempts to reformulate the exceptional as the normal, has the potential to rethink the political subject. In empirical terms, the article discusses how this process of misrecognition has been shaped in the Indian context of postcolonial state formation and articulations of sovereignty. We show how the Indian state is being rethought, restructured, and reimagined through Hindu nationalism and how the concept of misrecognition accounts for desires for sovereign agency and group cohesiveness, but also for resistance to various reimaginations of the Indian state.
Most of the key episodes in book 1 of Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene (1590) replay famous passages in Virgil's Aeneid. However, the concluding canto, describing the Redcrosse knight's betrothal to Una, is based on Maffeo Vegio's fifteenth-century Supplementum to the Aeneid, while, surprisingly, the Aeneid's much-disputed ending appears in triplicate in early sections of book 1. This article examines the place and function of book 1’s three imitations of the Aeneid's ending, while also relating them to Spenser's appropriations of the ending in later books of The Faerie Queene. It argues that, in making Redcrosse assume the position of Aeneas in largely negative contexts, book 1 opposes standard sixteenth-century interpretations of Aeneas's pietas, whereas later books of The Faerie Queene usually conform to prevalent early modern interpretations of the moral import of this powerful cultural memory.
The aim of this case study is to quantify the seasonal variability in crystal properties and to discuss the reason for the variability. A continuous 1.10 m long vertical thin-section profile covering approximately five annual cycles has been obtained from the North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) ice core at around 301 m depth. The crystal outline and the c-axis orientation of more than 13000 crystals in the profile have been measured on a new Australian automated ice-crystal analyzer. In 2.5 cm resolution we observe a strong seasonal variability in crystal areas of >30%deviation from the average value of 6.7 mm2. Each year, a band of smaller crystals is observed in ice deposited during spring. The area distribution function is found to be close to a lognormal distribution. The crystal areas are compared to the concentration of chemical impurities in the ice; at a 5 cm resolution, the best correlation is found with the concentration of Ca2+. Our results show no seasonal variability of the average c-axis orientation of ice crystals.
Sulphate (SO42–) is a major ion found in polar ice cores and is related to different aerosol sources and processes. Explosive volcanic eruptions, even far away, can cause distinct sulphate peaks in ice core records. Thus, a robust sulphate detection system which is suitable for fieldwork and which enables the measurement of sulphate at high temporal resolution is of great interest. In this study, we present the adaptation of a new continuous flow analysis system for sulphate that is based on a spectrophotometric method using dimethylsulfonazo III and an inline reactor column containing barium sulphate particles. The method shows a detection limit of ∽70 ng g–1 and a linear range up to at least 3000 ng g–1. It is simple, robust and less prone to interferences compared to the previously used method.
Detailed measurements of crystal outlines and fabrics have been performed on 35 000 crystals in fifteen 10 × 20 cm2 vertical thin sections from the North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) ice core, evenly distributed in the depth interval 115–880m. The crystals exhibit important changes over this period. As the ice gets older the mean crystal area increases towards a constant value, the shape of the crystals becomes increasingly irregular, and the area distribution of crystals develops from a single log-normal distribution into a bimodal lognormal distribution. The c-axis fabric of the ice shows a smooth development of an increasingly stronger vertical fabric with depth, and the formation of a weak vertical girdle. Already in the younger samples the fabric is rather strongly oriented towards vertical. The fabric and the area of individual crystals are found not to correlate. A simple model, which takes into account the vertical strain of the ice, is applied in an attempt to determine the crystal growth rate at NorthGRIP.
The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) was initiated in 1995 as a joint international programme involving Denmark, Germany, Japan, Belgium, Sweden, Iceland, the U.S.A., France and Switzerland. the main goal was to obtain undisturbed high-resolution information about the Eemian climatic period (115–130 kyr BP). the records from the Greenland Icecore Project (GRIP) and Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) in central Greenland are different and disturbed down in the ice covering this period. Internal radio-echo sounding layers show that NorthGRIP, placed 325 km north-northwest of GRIP at the Summit of the Greenland ice sheet, is located on a gently sloping ice ridge with very flat bedrock and internal layers found so high that an undisturbed Eemian record is possible. Internal layers much farther above bedrock than their apparent counter parts at GRIP suggest that conditions are favourable for recovery of an undisturbed Eemian record. So far, a 1351 mdeep ice core (NorthGRIP1) and a 3001 mdeep ice core (NorthGRIP 2) have been recovered. the ice thickness is expected to be 3080 m, and the ice temperature at 3001 m is –5.6°C, so we expect basal melting at the bedrock. Most of the Eemian ice will be melted away, leaving only the last part and the transition between the Eem and the Last Glacial Period. At 3001 m the age of the ice is 110 kyr BP and the annual layers are of the order 1 cm.With modern methods the annual layers can be resolved, resulting in detailed information on the decline of the warm Eemian period into the Last Glacial Period.
Ice-crystal textures (sizes and shapes) and fabrics (c-axis orientations) have been determined in 3 m of vertical thin sections from the Greenland Icecore Project (GRIP) ice core. the samples cover ice from before, during and after Greenland interstadial 3 (IS3) that occurred about 25 kyr BP. the texture of 60 000 crystals has been obtained from stacked digital images by semi-automated methods, and the fabric of 5000 selected crystals has been measured on the Automatic Ice Fabric Analyzer at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven. the area distribution function of the crystals is close to a log normal distribution, and the mean area is found to be 3.36 mm2 in ice from IS3, and 3.04 mm2 in ice from colder periods before and after IS3. the overall c-axis orientations show a strong single maximum with vertical orientation. These results agree well with earlier GRIP fabric studies obtained by manual methods. from comparisons of crystal areas with the concentrations of dust, Ca2+, SO42–, Cl– and NO3– in the ice we determine that NO3– correlates best with crystal areas. Crystals within clearly visible cloudy bands are significantly smaller than the surrounding crystals, and their c-axis orientations are less well confined than the average.
To improve our understanding of the deformation properties of cold-based polar glaciers, we examine here some of the factors leading to the localization of strain within the amber ice facies. We present a crystallographic case study of amber ice (a fine-grained bubbly ice containing a relatively high impurity content) sampled at the base of two Antarctic glaciers. The crystal fabrics and textures of amber ice were computed by application of a recently developed automated method. To date, it was tedious and awkward to determine amber ice facies accurately because of the sub-millimetric crystal size and relatively high debris content of this facies. The authomatic analytical method applied in this study allows not only for improving analytical accuracy in this task but also for considerably reducing the time of analysis. Our investigations reveal highly homogeneous crystallographic properties for the studied amber ice. The ice crystals are mainly polygonal, equant and sub-millimetric, and show a strong lattice-preferred orientation. These properties, beside the relatively high impurity content, are likely to exert a major control on strain enhancement in amber ice when this facies is present at the base of cold glaciers.
The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) palaeoclimatic information back to about 120 kyr BP. The size distributions of ice crystals in the upper 880 m of the NorthGRIP ice core, which cover a time-span of approximately 5300 years, have been obtained previously. The distributions evolve towards a universal curve, indicating a common underlying physical process in the formation of crystals. We identify this process as an interplay between fragmentation of the crystals and diffusion of their grain boundaries. The process is described by a two-parameter differential equation to which we obtain the exact solution. The solution is in excellent agreement with the measured distributions.
Automatic c-axes analyzers have been developed over the past few years, leading to a large improvement in the data available for analysis of ice crystal texture. Such an increase in the quality and quantity of data allows for stricter statistical estimates. The current textural parameters, i.e. fabric (crystallographic orientations) and microstructure (grain-boundary networks), are presented. These parameters define the state of the polycrystal and give information about the deformation undergone by the ice. To reflect the findings from automatic measurements, some parameter definitions are updated and new parameters are proposed. Moreover, a MATLAB® toolbox has been developed to extract all the textural parameters. This toolbox, which can be downloaded online, is briefly described.
We studied the variability of elemental carbon (EC) over 3 years (2009–11) in the winter snowpack of Storglaciären, Sweden. The goal of this study was to relate the seasonal variation in EC to specific snow accumulation events in order to improve understanding of how different atmospheric circulation patterns control the deposition of EC. Specifically, we related meteorological parameters (e.g. wind direction, precipitation) to snow physical properties, EC content, stable-isotope δ18O ratios and anion concentrations in the snowpack. The distribution of EC in the snowpack varied between years. Low EC contents corresponded to a predominance of weather systems originating in the northwest, i.e. North Atlantic. Analysis of single layers within the snowpacks showed that snow layers enriched in heavy isotopes coincided predominantly with low EC contents but high chloride and sulfate concentration. Based on this isotopic and geochemical evidence, snow deposited during these events had a strong oceanic, i.e. North Atlantic, imprint. In contrast, snow layers with high EC content coincided with snow layers depleted in heavy isotopes but high anion concentrations, indicating a more continental source of air masses and origin of EC from industrial emissions.
When drilling ice cores deeper than ∼100 m, drill liquid is required to maintain ice-core quality and to limit borehole closure. Due to high-pressure air bubbles in the ice, the ice core can crack during drilling and core retrieval, typically at 600–1200 m depth in Greenland. Ice from this ‘brittle zone’ can be contaminated by drill liquid as it seeps through cracks into the core. Continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems are routinely used to analyse ice for chemical impurities, so the detection of drill liquid is important for validating accurate measurements and avoiding potential instrument damage. An optical detector was constructed to identify drill liquid in CFA tubing by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength of 290 nm. The set-up was successfully field-tested in the frame of the NEEM ice-core drilling project in Greenland. A total of 27 cases of drill liquid contamination were identified during the analysis of 175 m of brittle zone ice. The analyses most strongly affected by drill liquid contamination include insoluble dust particles, electrolytic conductivity, ammonium, hydrogen peroxide and sulphate. This method may also be applied to other types of drill liquid used at other drill sites.
In polar ice sheets, the average grain size varies with depth. Ice grain size increases due to several factors including ice temperature and impurity content, which in turn varies with climate. The effect of impurities on grain growth is thought to be crucial but has never been observed experimentally. Using a methodology recently developed at Royal Holloway University of London, in situ chemical analysis of frozen ice at sub-ppm concentrations with unprecedented spatial resolution (~150 μm) is achievable using ultraviolet laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-LA-ICPMS) featuring a two-volume cryo-LA-cell. Following surface cleaning with a custom-built vice equipped with a ceramic blade, NGRIP ice slabs (~86 ka before AD 2000) have been analysed using a series of one-dimensional profiles and two-dimensional maps of laser spots at a resolution of 200–300 μm. Results demonstrate that cation impurities are not uniformly distributed in ice layers and show significant variations in concentration on a sub-millimetre scale. Furthermore, a different pattern of elemental distribution between clear ice and layers enriched in impurities (cloudy bands) has been identified: while concentration differences for cloudy bands are not resolvable between boundaries and inner grain domains, within clear ice, grain boundaries and junctions are significantly (up to 100 times) impurity-enriched relative to corresponding grain interiors.
Approximately 1% of children are born with CHD, and 90–95% reach adulthood. Increased exposure to infections and stress-strain can contribute to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. CHD may increase the risk of more serious infections, stress-strain, and increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus.
We analysed the onset of and the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with concurrent CHD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus without CHD. The study combined data from the National Diabetes Register and the National Patient Register.
A total of 104 patients with CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus were matched with 520 controls. Patients with CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus had an earlier onset of diabetes (13.9 versus 17.4 years, p<0.001), longer duration of diabetes (22.4 versus 18.1 years, p<0.001), higher prevalence of retinopathy (64.0 versus 43.0%, p=0.003), higher creatinine levels (83.5 versus 74.1 µmol/L, p=0.03), higher mortality (16 versus 5%, p=0.002), and after onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus higher rates of co-morbidity (5.28 versus 3.18, p⩽0.01), heart failure (9 versus 2%, p=0.02), and stroke (6 versus 2%, p=0.048) compared with controls.
From a nationwide register of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the coexistence of CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus was associated with an earlier onset, a higher frequency of microvascular complications, co-morbidity, and mortality.
Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages. We used molecular methods to screen 1343 individuals of 30 manakin species for the presence of parasites. We found no significant correlations between manakin parasite lineage turnover and both manakin species turnover and geographic distance. Climate differences, species turnover in the larger bird community and parasite lineage turnover in non-manakin hosts did not correlate with manakin parasite lineage turnover. We also found no evidence that manakin parasite lineage turnover among host species correlates with range overlap and genetic divergence among hosts. Our analyses indicate that host switching (turnover among host species) and dispersal (turnover among locations) of haemosporidian parasites in manakins are not constrained at this scale.