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HCWs not fulfilling COVID-19 case definition underwent SARS-CoV-2 screening. Risk of exposure, PPE adherence and symptoms were assessed. Two thousand HCWs were screened: 5.5% were PCR+. There were no differences in PPE use between PCR+ and PCR- HCWs (adherence >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with PCR+.
The behavior problems in residents may affect professionals’ performance at work, quality of work life, and even their health. Thus, it is important to have instruments that allow to estimate their prevalence. The objective of this study was to validate the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist-Nursing Homes (RMBPC-NH; Allen et al., 2003) in a Spanish population. Specifically, it was tested the factor structure of the RMBPC-NH proposed by Wagner et al. (1995). Moreover, the relevance of the different types of problems for the working performance, at the level of individuals and institutions, was explored.
In the present study, a total of 200 professionals participated.
A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted using WLSMV estimator in Mplus 7. Results showed a good fit to the data for the four-factor model (?2(813) = 1733.73, p<.001, CFI = .90, TIL = .90, RMSEA = .08). Thus, it can be concluded that the original factor structure proposed by Wagner et al. (1995) and replicated by Allen et al. (2003) can also be applied to Spanish staff nursing homes. The reliability of the scale was adequate (α from .86 to .93). Moreover, different descriptive and correlational results showed that both the factor scores of the Spanish adaptation of the RMBPC-NH and the importance of each type of problem were associated to different variable related.
After analyzing the factor structure, reliability and validity of the adaptation of the RMBPC-NH scale for Spanish staff nursing homes it has found that it has good psychometric properties, so it could be a useful tool for this population.
This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (grant number PSI2016-79803-R).
The dispersal of Crocodylus from Africa to Europe during the Miocene is not well understood. A small collection of cranial fragments and postcranial elements from the latest Miocene (6.2 Ma) site of Venta del Moro (Valencia, Spain) have previously been referred to Crocodylus cf. C. checchiai Maccagno, 1947 without accompanying descriptions. Here we describe and figure for the first time the crocodylian remains from Venta del Moro, which represent at least two individuals. Our comparisons indicate that this material clearly does not belong to Diplocynodon or Tomistoma—the only two other crocodylians described so far for the European late Miocene. The material is only tentatively referred to cf. Crocodylus sp. because the apomorphies of this genus are not preserved and a referral to C. checchiai cannot be supported on a morphological basis. However, it is likely that this late Miocene species, originally described from Libya (As Sahabi) and later identified also in Kenya, could have dispersed across the Mediterranean Basin multiple times and colonized the southern areas of Mediterranean Europe, as evidenced by several Crocodylus or Crocodylus-like remains described during the past years.
Some recent researches have shown the important role of hair cortisol as a retrospective biomarker of chronic stress. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between hair cortisol levels and sociodemographic and psychological variables, such as perceived stress levels and psychopathological symptoms on a Spanish population. The sample consisted of 347 healthy people, 230 women and 117 men, with an average age of 33.39 years (SD = 12.63). Hair cortisol levels were measured by obtaining a hair sample. In addition, a psychological assessment composed by: Analogic-Visual Stress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL–90–R) and the assessment of vital stressful events suffered, was carried out. The mean cortisol level was 108.93 pg/mg (SD = 66.43) in men, and 120.38 pg/mg (SD = 87.26) in women. The linear hierarchical regression showed that Analogic-Visual Stress Scale and perceived stress levels were related with higher hair cortisol levels (R2 = .032; t = 2.21; p = .029). Due to the relationship between daily stress levels, Analogic-Visual Stress Scale, anxiety sub-scale of SCL 90–R and perceived stress levels with hair cortisol levels, we conclude that there is a relation between perceived yourself stressed and the physiological levels.
Hypertension is a public health problem and its prevalence in children is on the rise, often continuing into adulthood and increasing the risk related cardiovascular complications. Sleep plays an essential role in children's growth and several studies suggest that insufficient sleep duration is associated with hypertension in adults. However, few studies have evaluated this association in children. Thus, the aim of the study is to ascertain whether the sleep duration is a risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) in children.
We studied 776 children (5–18 years old), (46.7% male, 78.8% 5–13 years, 73.6% overweight/obesity). Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BP was measured with an electronic manometer to find a 25.3% of children with an elevated systolic BP (SBP, > P90th) and 14% with an elevated diastolic BP (DBP, > P90th) (Task Force 2017). Sleep duration was assessed by asking the parents “¿How many hours does your child sleep in a typical weekday?”. Weekday sleep hours were considered since they are more representative of children's routines than weekend hours. Hours were converted into a dichotomous variable based on the fulfillment or not of the “Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommendations”: 9–11 hours for 5- to 13-year-olds; 8–10 hours for 14- to 17-year-olds.
A spearman correlation analysis was performed between sleep duration, SBP and DBP. Then, a general linear model analysis adjusted for BMI Z-score was done to evaluate differences in SBP and DBP between children following the sleep recommendations. Analyses were stratified by sex and age range (5–13 and 14–17).
In girls 5–13 years, we found a significant negative correlation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.226, p = 0.000) and between sleep and systolic BP (r = -0.188, p = 0.001). Girls 5–13 years not following sleep recommendations showed significantly higher SBP values than those who followed the recommendations (112 ± 11 mmHg vs. 106 ± 12 mmHg, p = 0.007), independently of BMI. No significant differences were observed in girls 14–17 years nor in males.
In the present study, we show that girls 5–13 years with shorter sleep duration show increased SBP values independently of BMI, in contrast to previous studies which showed similar associations that disappeared when adjusting for BMI. Our results support the need for wider strategies in population education so that sleep recommendations are followed by children in the general population.
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a sensory impairment, with a dramatic increase in its incidence, which is caused by genetic and environmental factors such as noise and ototoxic drugs. Recent studies correlated ARHL to elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) by folate deficiency, suggesting that reduction of Hcy levels by folate supplementation could potentially ameliorate ARHL.
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a status that contributes to ARHL, may also arise from malfunction of Hcy remethylation by betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferases (BHMTs) and methionine synthase in the methionine cycle. The expression and/or activity of these enzymes may be altered by ototoxic drugs, including paracetamol (APAP).
To determine the effect of APAP in cochlear morphology and function of control and Bhmt-/- mice, and to analyze putative preventive effects of folic acid (FA) supplementation.
Materials and Methods
Two-month-old Bhmt-/- mice (n = 47), with greater dependence on folate metabolism for Hcy remethylation, and Bhmt + / + mice (n = 42) were fed control or FA supplemented diets for 30 days. The last day APAP (250 mg/kg) or placebo were injected intraperitoneally.
Hearing was evaluated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABR) at the beginning of the experiment and after treatments. Picrosirius red staining was used for evaluation of the cochlear lateral wall cytoarchitecture. Plasma and hepatic metabolite levels were determined by HPLC or on Spinlab 100® autoanalyzer.
Loss of Bhmt expression induced HHcy, but an impact on hearing acuity was not observed. Acute APAP administration did not induce ABR threshold shifts. However, following ototoxic treatment, changes of 5–17% in the areas of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament were detected between Bhmt-/- mice under different dietary treatments; cochlear structures of Bhmt-/- mice receiving APAP plus FA supplementation resemble those of the control group. APAP increases susceptibility to ototoxic damage in the presence of HHcy.
BHMT plays a central role in cochlear methionine metabolism. FA supplementation modulates Hcy levels, contributing to a proper remethylation status that prevents ARHL.
This article analyses female labour in Spanish mines during the golden age of the sector in Spain between 1860 and 1936. Although they were a small percentage of total employment, women accounted for a significant share of the workforce in certain Spanish districts. On the one hand, the study quantifies work performed directly by women, who were mostly engaged in preparation and concentration of the minerals, as well as the extent of female child labour. This has been done by using official statistics, analysing the share of women employed for each type of mineral extracted, the mining area where this activity took place, and other variables. In the article, the authors seek to identify possible causes of such a heterogeneous distribution of female labour in the mining industry in Spain. This situation was common in the sector throughout the world. On the other hand, the article analyses attitudes of institutions, unions, and the like that limited employment opportunities for women in mining (banning them from performing underground tasks and other activities) and even proposed excluding them altogether, responding to workers’ demands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We examine the objectives pursued by these institutions, which in some cases related to protection (physical and moral) of female workers but overall aimed mainly to preserve the social role of women (particularly reproduction) and exclude them from the workforce. The pressure on female workers was the most pronounced in the workplace. These factors gave rise to a global setback in female employment, especially among the youngest workers. Given this situation, the quantitative data used, together with information drawn from different sources, reveal that women resisted giving up these jobs, particularly in the districts with a larger share of female workers.
The VISCACHA (VIsible Soar photometry of star Clusters in tApii and Coxi HuguA†) Survey is an ongoing project based on deep and spatially resolved photometric observations of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, collected using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope together with the SOAR Adaptive Module Imager. So far we have used >300h of telescope time to observe ∼150 star clusters, mostly with low mass (M < 104M⊙) on the outskirts of the LMC and SMC. With this high-quality data set, we homogeneously determine physical properties using deep colour-magnitude diagrams (ages, metallicities, reddening, distances, mass, luminosity and mass functions) and structural parameters (radial density profiles, sizes) for these clusters which are used as a proxy to investigate the interplay between the Magellanic Clouds and their evolution. We present the VISCACHA survey and its initial results, based on our first two papers. The project’s long term goals and expected legacy to the community are also addressed.
Preliminary evidence suggests that hoarding disorder (HD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may show distinct patterns of brain activation during executive performance, although results have been inconclusive regarding the specific neural correlates of their differential executive dysfunction. In the current study, we aim to evaluate differences in brain activation between patients with HD, OCD and healthy controls (HCs) during response inhibition, response switching and error processing.
We assessed 17 patients with HD, 18 patients with OCD and 19 HCs. Executive processing was assessed inside a magnetic resonance scanner by means of two variants of a cognitive control protocol (i.e. stop- and switch-signal tasks), which allowed for the assessment of the aforementioned executive domains.
OCD patients performed similar to the HCs, differing only in the number of successful go trials in the switch-signal task. However, they showed an anomalous hyperactivation of the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex during error processing in the switch-signal task. Conversely, HD patients performed worse than OCD and HC participants in both tasks, showing an impulsive-like pattern of response (i.e. shorter reaction time and more commission errors). They also exhibited hyperactivation of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during successful response switching and abnormal deactivation of frontal regions during error processing in both tasks.
Our results support that patients with HD and OCD present dissimilar cognitive profiles, supported by distinct neural mechanisms. Specifically, while alterations in HD resemble an impulsive pattern of response, patients with OCD present increased error processing during response conflict protocols.
Criticism of null hypothesis significance testing, confidence intervals, and frequentist statistics in general has evolved into advocacy of Bayesian analyses with informative priors for strong inference. This paper shows that Bayesian analysis with informative priors is formally equivalent to data falsification because the information carried by the prior can be expressed as the addition of fabricated observations whose statistical characteristics are determined by the parameters of the prior. This property of informative priors makes clear that only the use of non-informative, uniform priors in all types of Bayesian analyses is compatible with standards of research integrity. At the same time, though, Bayesian estimation with uniform priors yields point and interval estimates that are identical or nearly identical to those obtained with frequentist methods. At a qualitative level, frequentist and Bayesian outcomes have different interpretations but they are interchangeable when uniform priors are used. Yet, Bayesian interpretations require either the assumption that population parameters are random variables (which they are not) or an explicit acknowledgment that the posterior distribution (which is thus identical to the likelihood function except for a scale factor) only expresses the researcher’s beliefs and not any information about the parameter of concern.
Victimization experienced in childhood has been linked with health-risk behaviors (HRBs) in adulthood. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to provide data regarding the HRBs using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Retrospective version (ICAST-R), Spanish version. This aimed to broaden existing knowledge by assessing both being victimized by adults and by peers in a Spanish general population of 348, aged 18–35. Age and timing of the reported victimization were also considered. Victimization: physical, psychological, sexual abuse by adults and/or peers showed a prevalence of 44.54%. Of these, 41.29% reported abuse by both. Children victimized by adults, regardless of type, were significantly associated to be psychologically abused by their peers (p < .001). Moreover, psychological maltreatment by adults was significantly associated with two peer victimizations: Physical and psychological (p < .001 in both). Regarding HRBs, peer victimized groups showed significantly higher levels of severity than non-victimized, with a higher proportion reporting attempted suicide (p < .05) and psychological or psychiatric treatment (p < .05). Participants victimized only by adults reported higher number of HRBs (p < .01), their victimization was associated to more severe abuse of drugs/alcohol (p ≤ .05), and suicide attempts (p < .05). Those victimized by adults and peers received treatment in higher proportion than non-victims (p < .001). Participants reporting victimization since before 5 years to age of 17, compared with non-victimized, showed more substance abuse (p < .05), attempted suicide (p < .01) and receipt of treatment (p < .05). These findings highlight the relevance of ICAST-R in studying HRBs.
Many areas of research require measuring psychometric functions or their descriptors (thresholds, slopes, etc.). Data for this purpose are collected with psychophysical methods of various types and justification for the interpretation of results arises from a model of performance grounded in signal detection theory. Decades of research have shown that psychophysical data display features that are incompatible with such framework, questioning the validity of interpretations obtained under it and revealing that psychophysical performance is more complex than this framework entertains. This paper describes the assumptions and formulation of the conventional framework for the two major classes of psychophysical methods (single- and dual-presentation methods) and presents various lines of empirical evidence that the framework is inconsistent with. An alternative framework is then described and shown to account for all the characteristics that the conventional framework regards as anomalies. This alternative process model explicitly separates the sensory, decisional, and response components of performance and represents them via parameters whose estimation characterizes the corresponding processes. Retrospective and prospective evidence of the validity of the alternative framework is also presented. A formal analysis also reveals that some psychophysical methods and response formats are unsuitable for separation of the three components of observed performance. Recommendations are thus given regarding practices that should be avoided and those that should be followed to ensure interpretability of the psychometric function, or descriptors (detection threshold, difference limen, point of subjective equality, etc.) obtained with shortcut methods that do not require estimation of psychometric functions.
At birth, when immune responses are insufficient, there begins the development of the defence capability against pathogens. Leptin and adiponectin, adipokines that are present in breast milk, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. We report here, for the first time, the influence of in vivo adipokine supplementation on the intestinal immune system in early life. Suckling Wistar rats were daily supplemented with leptin (0·7 μg/kg per d, n 36) or adiponectin (35 μg/kg per d, n 36) during the suckling period. The lymphocyte composition, proliferation and cytokine secretion from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (on days 14 and 21), as well as intestinal IgA and IgM concentration (day 21), were evaluated. At day 14, leptin supplementation significantly increased the TCRαβ+ cell proportion in mesenteric lymph nodes, in particular owing to an increase in the TCRαβ+ CD8+ cell population. Moreover, the leptin or adiponectin supplementation promoted the early development CD8+ cells, with adiponectin being the only adipokine capable of enhancing the lymphoproliferative ability at the end of the suckling period. Although leptin decreased intestinal IgA concentration, it had a trophic effect on the intestine in early life. Supplementation of both adipokines modulated the cytokine profile during (day 14) and at the end (day 21) of the suckling period. These results suggest that leptin and adiponectin during suckling play a role in the development of mucosal immunity in early life.
The facilitating role of the facial expression of surprise in the discrimination of the facial expression of fear was analyzed. The sample consisted of 202 subjects that undertook a forced-choice test in which they had to decide as quickly as possible whether the facial expression displayed on-screen was one of fear, anger or happiness. Variations were made to the prime expression (neutral expression, or one of surprise); the target expression (facial expression of fear, anger or happiness), and the prime duration (50 ms, 150 ms or 250 ms). The results revealed shorter reaction times in the response to the expression of fear when the prime expression was one of surprise, with a prime duration of 50 ms (p = .009) and 150 ms (p = .001), compared to when the prime expression was a neutral one. By contrast, the reaction times were longer in the discrimination of an expression of fear when the prime expression was one of surprise with a prime duration of 250 ms (p < .0001), compared to when the prime expression was a neutral one. This pattern of results was obtained solely in the discrimination of the expression of fear. The discussion focuses on these findings and the possible functional continuity between surprise and fear.
The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a well-established measure of panic symptoms but few data exist on this instrument in non north-American samples. Our main goal was to assess the psychometric properties (internal consistency, test re-test reliability, inter-rater reliability, convergent and divergent validity) and the factor structure of the Spanish version. Ninety-four patients with a main diagnosis of panic disorder were assessed with the Spanish version of PDSS, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index–3 (ASI-3), the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) the PDSS self-rating form and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI). The Spanish PDSS showed acceptable internal consistency (α = .74), excellent test-retest (total score and items 1–6: α > .58, p < .01) and inter-rater reliability (most intraclass correlation coefficient values for the total score were > .90) and medium to large convergent validity (r = .68, 95% CI [.54, .79], p < .01; r = .80, 95% CI [.70, .87], p < .01; r = .48, 95% CI [.28, .67], p < .01; BAI, PAS and ASI–3 total scores respectively). Data on divergent validity (BDI-II total score: r = .52, 95% CI [.34, .67], p < .01) suggest some need for refinement of the PDSS. The confirmatory factor analysis suggested a two-factor modified model for the scale (nested χ2 = 14.01, df = 12, p < .001). The Spanish PDSS has similar psychometric properties as the previous versions and is a useful instrument to assess panic symptoms in clinical settings in Spanish-speaking populations.
Seed heteromorphism is the formation of different seed morphs from the same individual. Two seed morphs have been preliminarily observed in Leptocereus scopulophilus. One morph shows an apparent natural scarification of its coat. Herein we describe the seeds, taking into account shape, coat integrity, surface, dimensions, mass and the position of germination cracks. We defined two seed morphs using the integrity of the spermoderma: fragmented seed coats (FSC) and complete seed coats (CSC). We also evaluated minimum germination time, germination rate and germinability. The seed morphs did not differ significantly in traits; however, regular striations along the cuticle of the periclinal walls were more visible in the FSC compared with the CSC. Both seed morphs displayed anticlinal cell boundaries in the border region that are channelled and straight in the dorsal-ventral region but difficult to define in the lateral region. We found four morphological variations in different positions where the radicle or cotyledons emerge and variations in cuticle thickness in different regions of the seed that could determine the formation of cracks during germination. All germination variants occurred in both seed morphs, albeit in different proportions. Germination was higher and faster for the FSC compared with the CSC. These germination differences could be related to a thinner cuticle in the FSC and the punctual release of its spermoderma, which facilitates a quick imbibition of the embryo and the breaking of the seed coat. Our results indicate that differences in germination parameters between the two seed morphs relate to differences in the percentage of dormant seeds, which favour the temporal expansion of germination and reduce competition between siblings. To propagate the species for conservation purposes, we recommend using FSC, while CSC may be used to establish a seed collection ex situ.
Dark Matter constitutes most of the matter in the presently accepted cosmological model for our Universe. The extreme conditions of ordinary baryonic matter, namely high density and compactness, in Neutron Stars make these objects suitable to gravitationally accrete such a massive component provided interaction strength between both, luminous and dark sectors, at current experimental level of sensitivity. We consider several different DM phenomenological models from the myriad of those presently allowed. In this contribution, we review astrophysical aspects of interest in the interplay of ordinary matter and a fermionic light Dark Matter component. We focus in the interior nuclear medium in the core and external layers, i.e. the crust, discussing the impact of a novel dark sector in relevant stellar quantities for (heat) energy transport such as thermal conductivity or emissivities.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the urinary metabolic fingerprint and the effects of cocoa and cocoa fibre on body weight, hormone metabolism, intestinal immunity and microbiota composition. To this effect, Wistar rats were fed, for 3 weeks, a diet containing 10 % cocoa (C10) or two other diets with same the proportion of fibres: one based on cocoa fibre (CF) and another containing inulin as a reference (REF) diet. The rats’ 24 h urine samples were analysed by an untargeted 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomic approach. Concentrations of faecal IgA and plasma metabolic hormones were also quantified. The C10 diet decreased the intestinal IgA, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon concentrations and increased ghrelin levels compared with those in the REF group. Clear differences were observed between the metabolic profiles from the C10 group and those from the CF group. Urine metabolites derived from cocoa correlated with the cocoa effects on body weight, immunity and the gut microbiota. Overall, cocoa intake alters the host and bacterial metabolism concerning energy and amino acid pathways, leading to a metabolic signature that can be used as a marker for consumption. This metabolic profile correlates with body weight, metabolic hormones, intestinal immunity and microbiota composition.
Human milk contains bioactive compounds that confer a protective role against gastrointestinal infections. In order to find supplements for an infant formula able to mimic these benefits of breast-feeding, two different concepts were tested. The products consisted of the following: (1) a Bifidobacterium breve- and Streptococcus thermophilus-fermented formula and (2) a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. A rotavirus infection suckling rat model was used to evaluate improvements in the infectious process and in the immune response of supplemented animals. Both nutritional concepts caused amelioration of the clinical symptoms, even though this was sometimes hidden by softer stool consistency in the supplemented groups. Both products also showed certain modulation of immune response, which seemed to be enhanced earlier and was accompanied by a faster resolution of the process. The viral shedding and the in vitro blocking assay suggest that these products are able to bind the viral particles, which can result in a milder infection. In conclusion, both concepts evaluated in this study showed interesting protective properties against rotavirus infection, which deserve to be investigated further.
In the frame of the COST ACTION ‘EMBOS’ (Development and implementation of a pan-European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System), coverage of intertidal macroalgae was estimated at a range of marine stations along the European coastline (Subarctic, Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean). Based on these data, we tested whether patterns in macroalgal diversity and distribution along European intertidal rocky shores could be explained by a set of meteo-oceanographic variables. The variables considered were salinity, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, significant wave height and tidal range and were compiled from three different sources: remote sensing, reanalysis technique and in situ measurement. These variables were parameterized to represent average conditions (mean values), variability (standard deviation) and extreme events (minimum and maximum values). The results obtained in this study contribute to reinforce the EMBOS network approach and highlight the necessity of considering meteo-oceanographic variables in long-term assessments. The broad spatial distribution of pilot sites has allowed identification of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients manifested through species composition, diversity and dominance structure of intertidal macroalgae. These patterns follow a latitudinal gradient mainly explained by sea surface temperature, but also by photosynthetically active radiation, salinity and tidal range. Additionally, a longitudinal gradient was also detected and could be linked to wave height.