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This research communications addresses the hypothesis that a part of iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 in milk fat could come from endogenous extraruminal tissue synthesis. In order to confirm this a linear regression model was applied to calculate the proportions of iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 in milk fat that could come from elongation of their putative precursors iso 15:0 and anteiso 15:0, respectively. Sixteen dairy goats were allocated to two simultaneous experiments, in a crossover design with four animals per treatment and two experimental periods of 25 d. In both experiments, alfalfa hay was the sole forage and the forage to concentrate ratio (33 : 67) remained constant. Experimental diets differed on the concentrate composition, either rich in starch or neutral detergent fibre, and they were administered alone or in combination with 30 g/d of linseed oil. Iso 15:0, anteiso 15:0, iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0, the most abundant branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat, were determined by gas chromatography using two different capillary columns. The regression model resolved that 49% of iso 17:0 and 60% of anteiso 17:0 in milk fat was formed extraruminally from iso 15:0 and anteiso 15:0 elongation.
We describe the use of immobilized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a silica matrix as a biorecognition agent for the detection of albendazole sulfoxide (ASU), the primary metabolite of albendazole and a suspected teratogenic and embryotoxic agent. The biomaterial (DNA-containing gel) was synthesized by physical entrapment of salmon sperm in an inorganic silicate matrix by the sol-gel method. Functionality of the DNA-containing gel was evaluated by comparative offline frontal chromatography followed by HPLC analysis of ASU and caffeine (CAF, control) using DNA-containing gel and DNA-free gel. The DNA-containing gel showed relatively high specific retention for ASU, while CAF showed no retention using frontal analysis. We anticipate that the DNA-containing gel can be implemented to identify the interactions of DNA with other active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites in a readily available, sensitive and selective frontal chromatography experiment.
This article analyses female labour in Spanish mines during the golden age of the sector in Spain between 1860 and 1936. Although they were a small percentage of total employment, women accounted for a significant share of the workforce in certain Spanish districts. On the one hand, the study quantifies work performed directly by women, who were mostly engaged in preparation and concentration of the minerals, as well as the extent of female child labour. This has been done by using official statistics, analysing the share of women employed for each type of mineral extracted, the mining area where this activity took place, and other variables. In the article, the authors seek to identify possible causes of such a heterogeneous distribution of female labour in the mining industry in Spain. This situation was common in the sector throughout the world. On the other hand, the article analyses attitudes of institutions, unions, and the like that limited employment opportunities for women in mining (banning them from performing underground tasks and other activities) and even proposed excluding them altogether, responding to workers’ demands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We examine the objectives pursued by these institutions, which in some cases related to protection (physical and moral) of female workers but overall aimed mainly to preserve the social role of women (particularly reproduction) and exclude them from the workforce. The pressure on female workers was the most pronounced in the workplace. These factors gave rise to a global setback in female employment, especially among the youngest workers. Given this situation, the quantitative data used, together with information drawn from different sources, reveal that women resisted giving up these jobs, particularly in the districts with a larger share of female workers.
Why do some individuals willingly make extreme sacrifices for their group? Whitehouse argues that such willingness stems from a visceral feeling of oneness with the group – identity fusion – that emerges from intense, shared dysphoric experiences or from perceived close kinship with others. Although Whitehouse's argument makes a valuable contribution to understanding extreme sacrifice, factors independent of identity fusion, such as devotion to sacred values, can predict self-sacrifice.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.
We present radiocarbon (14C) in tree rings from Mexico City and a reconstruction of fossil CO2 concentrations for the last five decades, as part of a research program to understand the 14C dynamics in this complex urban area. Background values were established by 14C concentrations in tree rings from a nearby clean area. Agreement between background and NH-zone 2 values indicate Taxodium mucronatum is a good biomonitor for annual atmospheric 14C variations. Values for the urban tree rings were significantly lower than background values, indicating a 14C depletion from fossil CO2 emissions. There is an increasing trend of fossil CO2 between 1960 and 1990, in agreement with the population growth and the increasing demand for fossil fuels in Mexico City. Between 1990 and 2000, there is an apparent decrease in fossil CO2 concentration, increasing again after 2000. The decrease in 2000, despite being of the same magnitude as the overall uncertainty, may reflect environmental policies that improved the energy efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions in the area. The increase in fossil CO2 concentration between 2000 and 2010 may be attributable to the significant growth of motor vehicle usage in Mexico City, which made transportation the main energy-demanding and -emitting sector.
Correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of behavioral measures from two experimental tasks (Delayed Match-to-Sample and Oddball), and standard scores from a neuropsychological test battery (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was performed on data from participants between 6–18 years old. The correlation analysis (p < .05) results showed a common maturational trend in working memory performance between these two types of tasks. Applying PCA (Eigenvalues > 1), the scores of the first extracted component were significantly correlated (p < .05) to most behavioral measures, suggesting some commonalities of the processes of age-related changes in the measured variables. The results suggest that this first component would be related to age but also to individual differences during the cognitive maturation process across childhood and adolescence stages. The fourth component would represent the speed-accuracy trade-off phenomenon as it presents loading components with different signs for reaction times and errors.
We analize the light curve of comet P/Halley resulting from 187 observations made by amateurs. We try to derive some constraints on the physical properties of the comet through the application of the semi-empirical photometric model (SEPM) developped by R.L. Newburn.
The m1 (Fig. 2) and V(1,0) light curves show a clear transition phase in the pre-perihelion apparition, between ~ 1.9 and ~ 1.2 A.U. which supports the division into 3 parts made by Hasegawa. It is remarkable to find that the light curve obtained by amateurs is so close to those obtained by experienced observers.
We derive an effective equivalent radius of β = 4.9 ± 0.8 (1σ) km, and a geometrical albedo of pυ = 0.06 ± 0.02 (1σ) using the method suggested by Delsemme and Rud.
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) produces a complex mixture of gases and aerosols from diverse sources, including burning of fossil fuels, biomass, and wastes, with a significant biogenic contribution. We present the first results of ongoing projects to study temporal and spatial variations of 14CO2 in the area. Temporal variations reconstructed from tree rings of Taxodium mucronatum indicate a considerable radiocarbon depletion, in accordance to the vast amount of fossil fuels burnt inside Mexico Valley, with values between 62 and 246‰ lower than background values for the 1962–1968 period, and lower by 51–88‰ for the 1983–2010 period. The lower dilution found for the last decades might indicate an increase in enriched 14CO2 sources. Results from the spatial distribution, as revealed from integrated CO2 samples and grasses from six points within the MCMA collected during the 2013 dry season, show variations between sites and sample types. For integrated CO2 samples, values range from 35.6‰ to 54.0‰, and for grasses between −86.8‰ and 40.7‰. For three of the sampling points, the grasses are significantly depleted, by up to ∼133‰, as compared to the corresponding integrated CO2 sample. This may result from differences in the carbon assimilation period and exposure to different CO2 sources. Higher-than-background Δ14C values were found for all integrated CO2 samples, presumably resulting from 14C-enriched CO2 derived from forest fires in the mountains during the sampling period. Results obtained so far confirm the complexity of the 14C cycle in the MCMA.
Relationships between fatty acids (FAs) in plant oils included in goat diets and milk fat C18 isomers were determined by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). The three first principal factors (PF1, PF2 and PF3) accounted for 64·5% of the total variation in milk FAs contents. Fatty acids with a double bond at carbons 13, 14, 15 or 16 had high (>0·6) and positive loadings for PF1, trans-4 to trans-8 C18:1 for PF2, whereas trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 showed high and positive loadings for PF3. Pearson's correlations supported that PF1, PF2 and PF3 were related to α-linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid intakes, respectively. Our results show that the quantitatively main FAs in plant lipids supplemented to dairy ruminants are often the main cause of the observed changes in milk C18 isomer contents. However, sometimes the observed changes are caused, or at least are influenced, by other FAs present in lower quantities in the plant lipids. Thus, using mixtures of plant oils with differently unsaturated main FAs could be a way of tailoring milk fat composition to a pre-designed pattern.
Antes de nada, deseo que reparen en el título de mi breve intervención (que recuerda un guiño semejante por parte de Francisco Rico en ‘La clerecía del mester’), pues deja claro que el participio de presente ludens no sólo es aplicable al artista. Al mismo tiempo, anuncia mi propósito de revisar el esplendor y ocaso de una estrofa y su principal testigo textual, que, desde finales del siglo XVI para acá, han interesado tan sólo a un público profesional, y minoritario. La octava real nunca entró propiamente en una fase de letargo gracias a que ahí estaban Garcilaso y su Égloga III; además, aún habría tiempo para la reivindicación de Góngora y su Polifemo y Galatea, autor y obra de culto para el más exigente de los lectores. Aunque los tiempos, y con ellos los gustos, cambian, no alcanzo a imaginar nada parecido en el caso de la copla de arte mayor y el Laberinto de Fortuna.
Pasado el tiempo durante el que esta estrofa y la poesía de cancionero mantuvieron su vigencia estética, de Juan de Mena, ya sin apenas lectores, quedó, eso sí, merecida fama de escritor de altos vuelos en verso y prosa. Antes de ocuparnos del prolongado letargo del Laberinto, detengámonos por un instante en el siglo largo en que gozó del aprecio generalizado de los aficionados al verso. La tradición textual del cordobés, de la que me ocupé al editar su obra completa (con Teresa Jiménez Calvente) y al redactar la ficha del Diccionario filológico coordinado por Carlos Alvar y José Manuel Lucía, confirma que entusiasmó a varias generaciones. El terminus ad quem en lo que a la vigencia de la poesía cancioneril respecta coincide con la última edición del Cancionero general de Hernando del Castillo (1573); en el caso de Mena, tenemos otra data: 1582, año en que vio la luz la edición del Brocense, que silencia arteramente su inmensa deuda ecdótica y exegética con el Comendador Griego.
Este libro reúne un número significativo de artículos suponen una aportación ciertamente notable a la bibliografía disponible hasta la fecha. Juan de Mena: de letrado a poeta recoge dieciséis trabajos en los que se estudia su figura y su obra desde perspectivas distintas pero complementarias que abren nuevas líneas de investigación o bien enriquecen otras ya existentes. El libro está estructurado en tres grandes bloques temáticos: El primero de ellos se dedica al contexto histórico de Juan de Mena. El segundo bloque gira en torno a la configuración del poeta, atendiendo a la conciencia autorial de Mena y a los recursos literarios que emplea. El tercer y último bloque está dedicado a la transformación del 'famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena' en un clásico. Cristina Moya García es profesora en la Universidad de Córdoba. This book contains several studies reviewing the two facets of Juan de Mena's life as lawyer and poet. These contributions open up new lines of research on this important early-fifteenth-century Castilian writer and enrich some existing ones, studying Juan de Mena from different perspectives. The book is structured into three thematic blocks: The first is devoted to the historical context of Juan de Mena. The second section focuses on the configuration of the poet. The third and final part is dedicated to the transformation of "famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena" into a classic author. Cristina Moya García is a profesor at the Universidad de Córdoba.Contributors: Federica Accorsi, Carlos Alvar, Linde M. Brocato, Daniel Capra, Juan Luis Carriazo Rubio, Antonio Cortijo, Sila Gómez Álvarez, Ángel Gómez Moreno, Daniel Hartnett, Julián Jiménez Heffernan, Maxim Kerkhof, Françoise Maurizi, Cristina Moya García, Francisco de Paula Cañas Gálvez, Pedro Ruiz Pérez.
The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between self-focused
attention and mindfulness in participants prone to hallucinations and others who
were not. A sample of 318 healthy participants, students at the universities of
Sevilla and Almería, was given the Launay-Slade Hallucinations
Scale-revised (LSHS-R, Bentall & Slade, 1985). Based on this sample, two groups were formed:
participants with high (n = 55) and low proneness
(n = 28) to hallucinations. Participants with a
score higher than a standard deviation from the mean in the LSHS-R were included
in the high proneness group, participants with a score lower than a standard
deviation from the mean in the LSHR-R were included in the second one. All
participants were also given the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS, McKenzie
& Hoyle, 2008) and the
Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ, Chadwick et al., 2008). The results showed that
participants with high hallucination proneness had significantly higher levels
of public (t(80) = 6.81, p
< .001) and private (t(77) = 7.39,
p < .001) self-focused attention and lower levels
of mindfulness (t(81) = -4.56, p
< .001) than participants in the group with low hallucination
proneness. A correlational analysis showed a negative association between
self-focused attention (private and public) and mindfulness (r
= -0.23, p < .001; r
= -0.38, p < .001 respectively). Finally,
mindfulness was found to partly mediate between self-focused attention and
hallucination proneness. The importance of self-focused attention and
mindfulness in understanding the etiology of hallucinations discussed and
suggest some approaches to their treatment.