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To examine the prevalence and diversity of older adults on primetime television, and age stereotyping in these portrayals, we analysed the contents of 112 episodes of popular American television series aired between 2004 and 2018. We identified 6.6 per cent of characters as aged 65 and older – a slight improvement to the values reported in previous studies. However, older adult characters are still grossly under-represented, considering the actual proportion of older adults in the general population of the United States of America. Further, the typical older character was young-old, male, Caucasian, middle-class, able-bodied and straight – if his sexuality was referenced. Older women still face double discrimination in media representations. In addition, older adult characters with ethnicities other than Caucasian and African American are virtually invisible in primetime fiction series. Similarly, old-old characters, sexual minorities and persons with disabilities are particularly rare among older adult characters in this type of programming. Finally, portrayals of 51.9 per cent of characters included at least some elements of age stereotypes, most of which were positive. The most commonly applied positive and negative stereotypes were found to be the golden ager and the shrew, respectively. The findings are discussed in the context of the dominant discourse of ageing and the potential implications of how various social groups perceive ageing and older adults.
The Pannonian basin in Central Europe is well known for its rich geothermal resources. Although geothermal energy has been utilised, mainly for direct use purposes, for a long time, there are still a lot of untapped resources. This paper presents novel methods for outlining and assessing the theoretical and technical potential of partly still unknown geothermal reservoirs, based on a case study from the Dráva basin, one of the sub-basins of the Pannonian basin along the Hungarian–Croatian border. The presented methods include reservoir delineation based on combining geological bounding surfaces of the Upper Pannonian basin-fill units with a set of isotherms deriving from a conductive geothermal model. The geothermal potential of each identified reservoir was calculated by a Monte Carlo method, which was considered as being represented by the heat content of the fluids stored in the effective pore space (‘moveable fluid’). The results underline the great untapped geothermal potential of the Dráva basin, especially that of the reservoir storing thermal water of 50–75°C, which has the largest volume and the greatest stored heat content.
In Hungary, between February 2017 and July 2019, 70 confirmed measles cases were reported, raising questions about the adequacy of population-level immunity. Although the assumed vaccination coverage is ≥99%, in a recent study, we detected potential gaps in the anti-measles humoral immunity. In Hungary, according to a decree by the Ministry of Public Welfare, beginning from 2021, the healthcare provider should conduct a serosurvey of anti-measles protection levels of healthcare professionals. To facilitate the compliance with this requirement, we developed a quick ‘three-in-one’ or ‘triple’ MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) indirect ELISA (IgG); an assay format that is currently not available commercially. High throughput applicability of the ‘three-in-one’ ELISA was verified using 1736 sera from routine laboratory residual samples, using an automated platform (Siemens BEP 2000 Advance). Assay verification was performed by comparing the full antigen repertoire-based ‘target’ assay with in-house ‘control’ assays using recombinant viral antigen coatings, and by validated commercially available kits. Indirect immunofluorescence was used as an independent reference method. Data were analysed using OriginLab, IBM SPSS, RStudio and MedCalc. In case of measles, we combined our current results with previously published data (Ntotal measles = 3523). Evaluation of anti-mumps and anti-rubella humoral antibody levels was based on the measurement of 1736 samples. The lowest anti-measles seropositivity (79.3%) was detected in sera of individuals vaccinated between 1978 and 1987. Considering the antigen-specific seropositivity ratios of all samples measured, anti-measles, -mumps and -rubella IgG antibody titres were adequate in 89.84%, 91.82% and 92.28%, respectively. Based on the virus-specific herd immunity threshold (HIT) values (HITMeasles = 92–95%, HITMumps = 75–86%, HITRubella = 83–86), it can be stated that regarding anti-measles immunity, certain age clusters of the population may have inadequate levels of humoral immunity. Despite the potential gaps in herd immunity, the use of MMR vaccine remains an effective and low-cost approach for the prevention of measles, mumps and rubella infections.
The concept of the Tommotian Regional Stage of the Siberian Platform has been closely linked to the idea of the ‘Cambrian Explosion’ of animals and protists when the entire Earth system shifted rapidly into Phanerozoic mode. We conducted a multidisciplinary study of an informal ‘synstratotype’ of the lower Tommotian boundary in the upper Mattaia Formation, Kessyusa Group in the Olenek Uplift, NE of the Siberian Platform. The Mattaia Formation characterizes an upper shoreface to inner-shelf depositional setting and provides important faunal ties and correlation with carbonate-dominated and aliminosiliciclastic open-shelf areas. A section of the upper Mattaia Formation at Boroulakh, Olenek River is suggested here as a model for the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Cambrian Stage 2. This level contains the lowermost occurrence of the cosmopolitan fossil helcionelloid mollusc Aldanella attleborensis. Section global markers near the base of the stage include a positive excursion of δ13C values reaching +5.4‰, a U–Pb zircon date of 529.7 ± 0.3 Ma, massive appearance of diverse small skeletal fossils (including Watsonella crosbyi), a sudden increase in diversity and abundance of trace fossils, as well as a conspicuous increase in depth and intensity of bioturbation. Coincidently, it is this level that has always been regarded as the lower Tommotian boundary on the Olenek Uplift.
Previous evidence suggested that lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) was a variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), thus the aim of the current study is to quantify structural changes in histological specimens taken from HT and LT patients. A total of 600 images containing a single lymphocyte nucleus (300 nuclei per group) were obtained from 20 patients with HT and LT. In order to quantify changes in the nuclear architecture of investigated lymphocytes, the fractal dimension (FD) and some gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture parameters (angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, entropy, and correlation) were calculated for each nucleus. A statistically significant difference in the FD of the “binary-outlined” nucleus and that of the corresponding “black-and-white” nucleus was detected between HT and LT lymphocyte nuclei. In addition, there was also a statistically significant difference in contrast and correlation between HT and LT lymphocyte nuclei. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that there was a difference in structural complexity between investigated lymphocyte nuclei; additionally, LT lymphocytes possessed probably more complex texture and larger variations as well as more asymmetrical nuclei compared with HT lymphocytes. Accordingly, these findings indicate that LT is probably not a variant of HT; however, more complex studies are necessary to estimate differences between these types of thyroiditis.
Today, a few differing sources of selenium (Se), i.e. inorganic, organic, and nano forms of Se, are used as feed supplements for poultry. Published research indicates that nano-Se and organic Se possess comparable efficiency to inorganic Se in increasing GSH-Px activity of plasma and various tissues, but they deposit at higher rates in various tissues. However, there are principal differences in absorption mechanisms, metabolism, and efficiency of these three forms of Se. The aim of this review was to analyze the available literature on the effects of different Se sources and levels in the diet on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, tissue Se distribution and growth performance in poultry. Higher levels of Se increase GSH-Px activity in the body, but this reaches a plateau even if Se concentrations in diet increase further, while the deposition of Se in tissues increases as Se content in diet increases. In addition, many studies have shown the positive effects of adding Se to diet on growth performance in poultry. Optimal Se supplementation is necessary not only for good poultry health but also to ensure and preserve meat quality during storage and to provide human beings with this microelement.
Parasite transmission can be altered via the removal of parasites by the ambient communities in which parasite–host interactions take place. However, the mechanisms driving parasite removal remain poorly understood. Using marine trematode cercariae as a model system, we investigated the effects of consumer and host body size on parasite removal rates. Laboratory experiments revealed that consumer or host body size significantly affected cercarial removal rates in crabs, oysters and cockles but not in shrimps. In general, cercarial removal rates increased with consumer (crabs and oysters) and host (cockles) body size. For the filter feeding oysters and cockles, the effects probably relate to their feeding activity which is known to correlate with bivalve size. Low infection levels found in cockle hosts suggest that parasite removal by hosts also leads to significant mortality of infective stages. The size effects of crab and shrimp predators on cercarial removal rates were more complex and did not show an expected size match-mismatch between predators and their cercarial prey, suggesting that parasite removal rates in predators are species-specific. We conclude that to have a comprehensive understanding of parasite removal by ambient communities, more research into the various mechanisms of cercarial removal is required.
In this paper we give some generalizations and improvements of the Pavlović result on the Holland–Walsh type characterization of the Bloch space of continuously differentiable (smooth) functions in the unit ball in
Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves quality of life and survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and respiratory symptoms. Little is known about the patterns of NIV use over time and the impact of NIV on end-of-life decision-making in ALS. Objective: This study assessed the pattern of NIV use over the course of the disease and the timing of end-of-life discussions in people living with ALS. Method: A retrospective single-center cohort study was performed at London Health Sciences Centre. Daily NIV duration of use was evaluated at 3-month intervals. The timing of diagnosis, NIV initiation, discussions relating to do-not-attempt-resuscitation (DNAR) and death were examined. Results: In total, 48 patients were included in the analysis. Duration of NIV use increased over time, and tolerance to NIV was observed to be better than expected in patients with bulbar-onset ALS. There was a high degree of variability in the timing of end-of-life discussions in patients with ALS (356±451 days from diagnosis). In this cohort, there was a strong association between the timing of discussions regarding code status and establishment of a DNAR order (r2=0.93). Conclusion: This retrospective cohort study suggests that the use of NIV in ALS increases over time and that there remains a great deal of variability in the timing of end-of-life discussions in people living with ALS. Future prospective studies exploring the use NIV over the disease trajectory and how NIV affects end-of-life decision-making in people with ALS are needed.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
This paper examines the impact of European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) decisions on the field of religion and education in Greece around the issues of the content and objectives of religious education, the exemption thereof, and religious symbols in school. The findings indicate that despite the relevance of ECtHR case law with the specific field in Greece, the Court's role in influencing such national debates is minimal. Drawing on empirical research and discourse analysis, the paper argues that this is due to the doctrine of the margin of appreciation, apparently linked to strategic references to and varying interpretations of the Court's judgments; the unwillingness of actors to litigate in a potentially sensitive, lengthy, and costly procedure; and to a shared belief in the perceived primacy of constitutional provisions on religion and education that precludes the formation of structured mobilizations.
The aims of this study were to determine the presence and quantities of antioxidative status and oxidative stress (OS) variables in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of bulls of varying age during cold and warm periods of the year, and to establish the correlation of these variables with semen quality parameters. The study was conducted on two groups each comprising nine Simmental bulls: one group contained younger animals (aged 2 to 4 years) and the second older animals (aged 5 to 10 years). Semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina for biochemical analysis. Seminal plasma and spermatozoa activities of total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper–zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and concentrations of total protein (TP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were determined. Several antioxidants in seminal plasma were also determined: total glutathione peroxidase (TGSH-Px), selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase (Non-SeGSH-Px), uric acid, albumins (ALB) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Significantly higher spermatozoa motility was observed during the cold v. warm period, and a significantly higher volume and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate was observed in older than in younger bulls. Significantly higher values of ALP, TP and ALB were found in seminal plasma of older bulls than in younger bulls during the warm period. The seminal plasma of younger bulls showed significantly higher activities of TSOD, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, TGSH-Px and Non-SeGSH-Px. Younger bulls had significantly higher PCC concentration and activity of CAT in seminal plasma than older bulls during the cold period. Significantly higher concentrations of PCC and TBARS, and activities of TSOD, MnSOD and CuZnSOD were established in spermatozoa of the younger than in older bulls during the warm period. It could be concluded that antioxidative and OS variables differ significantly depending on bull age and time of year. Younger bulls were more sensitive to elevated ambient temperatures during the warm period, when the higher enzymatic antioxidative protection in seminal plasma and spermatozoa were insufficient to counteract the intensive oxidative processes in spermatozoa, which eventually resulted in decreased spermatozoa motility. The estimation of antioxidative and OS variables in seminal plasma and spermatozoa may have practical value for the assessment of bull semen quality.
This paper reports on a microwave heater at 20 GHz for digital microfluidics. It allows rapid heating of nanoliter fluid samples and simultaneous temperature monitoring by correlating the reflection coefficient of the heater with the temperature dependency of the relative permittivity of the lossy fluid under consideration, in this case demineralized water. Microwave heating was performed with power levels of 20 and 23 dBm at the on-wafer probe tips on samples of 500 nL. Temperature measurements were carried out with a miniaturized type K thermocouple, and a platinum resistor to monitor the reference temperature. Microwave and thermal performances have been characterized using multi-physics software, and measurements obtained with a large signal vector network analyzer showed good agreement with simulated data. An average heating rate of 20 °C/s was observed during the first 4 s of the heating process.
The revaluation of the literary past was a central preoccupation of the Russian symbolists. Some of these reassessments (Gogol and Dostoevsky in particular come to mind) have remained surprisingly fresh and valid after the passage of more than half a century. It is all the more ironic, then, that for decades the work of the Russian symbolists has been shamefully neglected by the critics. In Russia itself most of these fine poets are hardly mentioned, while a few, such as Blok and Briusov, are presented in such a fashion as to be unrecognizable. Outside Russia there have been valuable contributions to our knowledge of this period (by Mochulsky, Makovsky, Stepun, Tschižewskij, and Setschkarev, as well as Holthusen and other German scholars), but even here there is sometimes undue reliance on doubtful opinions which were formed fifty years ago; Mochulsky, for example, is guilty of this.
It is known that n-Si solar cells have higher efficiency than p-Si solar cells. One of the problems connected with n-Si application for solar cell production is the difficulty of using Czochralski method for growing n-Si ingots, uniform in structure. The present paper examines the possibility of production of n-Si ingots, uniform in resistance, by neutron transmutation doping (NTD) for photovoltaics using the mathematical modeling method. The provided calculation data are obtained by MCU-RFFI/A accounting code with DLC/MCUDAT-1.0 constant library developed by «Kurchatov Institute» Russian Research Center. The MCU accounting code is used for solution of the neutron-transport equation by Monte-Carlo procedure on the basis of estimated nuclear data for arbitrary three-dimensional geometry systems.
The present paper provides the estimation of uniformity of neutron-flux density along the ingot length and radius; dependence of silicon resistance on duration of irradiation. These studies established the neutron flux density distribution along the ingot length and radius; regularities of silicon resistance changes on duration and intensity of irradiation.
The mechanism that guides the formation of exceptionally preserved fossils with soft tissues variously displayed is a paramount challenge to paleontology. The key question for exceptional preservation is the nature of the slowdown of decay and acceleration of soft tissue mineralization. Here we report the experimental formation of subfossils of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), which were produced during 14 months of aging in a kaolinite clay sediment. EDS/SEM elemental analyses showed that the subfossils were preserved as thin clay-organic replicas that displayed fine anatomical details. Decomposition in the clay-colloidal solution established highly heterogeneous acidic conditions, with the lowest pH typically found in the vicinity of the buried organisms, and visually manifested in patchy coloration of the sediment. Elevated acidity is likely what ultimately slowed the decay. An acidic environment increases the rate of clay destruction and, consequently, the diffusion rate decline. As a result, the acidic products quickly accumulate around a buried body; this in turn inhibits bacterial proliferation, accelerates the acidic hydrolysis of clay and, accordingly, the release of tanning and mineralizing agents. The subfossils remained stable under experimental high pressure and temperature. These model subfossils exhibit features that are typical of some Lagerstätten fossils preserved in fine-grained sediments.
In 1868, Japan embarked on its unique journey to become a modern country that was deemed successful and advanced by Western standards. But what characterized Japanese civilization at the outset of this quest and how did the makers of modern Japan conceptualize their goals? To answer this question, we will look at the long tradition of the Mito School, with special attention for the works of the Later Mito School, and to the thinkers and practitioners of the Bakumatsu and Meiji periods. This shall enable us to determine the aim, the nature and the success of Japan’s quest for its own path to modernization. The dissemination of the paradigm of modernization thereby attained to Korea and China shall be followed through and evaluated.