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We analyze the benefits of incorporating climate change into land conservation decisions using wetland migration under rising sea-levels as a case study. We use a simple and inexpensive decision method, a knapsack algorithm implemented in Excel, with (1) simulation data to show that ignoring sea-level rise predictions lead to suboptimal outcomes, and (2) an application to land conservation in Phippsburg, Maine to show the real-world applicability. The simulation shows an 11-percent to almost 30-percent gain in increased benefits when accounting for sea-level rise. The results highlight that it is possible to, and important to, incorporate sea-level rise into conservation planning.
As I organized my ideas in preparation for the writing of the original version of this chapter, I came to realize that my thinking and my research efforts had almost come full circle. Now, half a decade later, that circle is closer than ever before to becoming closed. Almost 35 years ago, I moved to Denver, Colorado, to begin my career as a fledgling teacher. My experiences in my mixed-age classroom filled with five-, six-, and seven-year-olds kindled within me a deep interest in motivation and creativity of performance. My concerns about what our educational system was not doing to promote student growth in these areas became so great that I eventually left my elementary classroom to return to school myself. I was convinced that it was the field of psychology, and more specifically the study of the social psychology of creativity, that could best provide the answers I was looking for. As a graduate student and later as a professor of psychology, I have been almost single-minded in my attempts to answer empirically the question of how best to structure classrooms so that they are most conducive to student motivation and creativity. Over the past 40 years, researchers in this area have contributed literally hundreds of investigations to the psychological and educational psychology literatures; for my own part, in the last few years, I have even been bold enough to end a few chapters or monographs with a “laundry list” of what teachers and school administrators should and should not do if student intrinsic motivation and creativity are the goal.
Our research has lead to the establishment of a number of models of the intersection between intrinsic motivation and creativity of performance (Amabile, 1996; Hennessey, 2003; Hennessey & Amabile, 1988), rubrics that are now widely accepted by investigators in the areas of social psychology and related specialties. The so-called Intrinsic Motivation Principle of Creativity (Amabile 1996; Hennessey, 2003) on which much of our work is based has even been the subject of heated professional debate (Eisenberger, 2003; Eisenberger, Armeli, & Pretz, 1998; Eisenberger & Cameron, 1996, 1998; Eisenberger, Pierce, & Cameron, 1999; Hennessey & Amabile, 1998). While initially disconcerting, I have come to see this argument as the sincerest form of flattery, as only established theories garner sufficient criticism and ire to be considered controversial.
To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events
Retrospective chart review
A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania
All patients hospitalized during 2011–2012
Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded.
We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented.
In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015.
The Surgical Care Improvement Project bundle emphasizes operative infection prevention practices. Despite implementing the Surgical Care Improvement Project bundle in 2008, spinal fusion surgical site infections (SF-SSI) continued to be prevalent for this low-volume, high-risk surgery.
To design a combined pre-, peri-, and postoperative bundle (PPPB) that would lead to sustained reductions in SF-SSI rates.
Quality improvement project, before-after trial with cost-effectiveness analysis.
All spinal fusion patients, 2008–2015.
A multidisciplinary team developed the PPPB composed of Surgical Care Improvement Project elements plus improved wound care practices, nursing standard of care, dedicated nursing unit, dermatology assessment tool and consultation, nursing education tool using “teach back” technique, and a “Back Home” kit. SF-SSI rates were compared before (2008–2010) and after (2011-February 2015) implementation of PPPB. PPPB compliance was monitored.
A total of 224 SF surgeries were performed from 2008 to February 2015. Pre-PPPB analysis revealed median time to SF-SSI of 28 days, secondary to skin and bowel flora. Mean 3-year pre-PPPB SF-SSI rate per 100 SF surgeries was 8.2 (8/98) (2008: 13.3 [4/30], 2009: 2.7 [1/37], 2010: 9.7 [3/31]). Mean SF-SSI rate after PPPB was 2.4 (3/126) (January 2011-February 2015); there was a 71% reduction in mean SSI rate (P=.0695). No SF-SSI occurred in neuromuscular patients (P=.008) after PPPB. Compliance with PPPB elements has been 100%.
PPPB led to sustained improvement in SF-SSI rates over 50 months. The PPPB could be reproduced for other surgeries.
The earliest cognitive deficits observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) appear to center on memory tasks that require relational memory (RM), the ability to link or integrate unrelated pieces of information. RM impairments in aMCI likely reflect neural changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We tested the hypothesis that individuals with aMCI, as compared to cognitively normal (CN) controls, would recruit neural regions outside of the MTL and PPC to support relational memory. To this end, we directly compared the neural underpinnings of successful relational retrieval in aMCI and CN groups, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), holding constant the stimuli and encoding task. The fMRI data showed that the CN, compared to the aMCI, group activated left precuneus, left angular gyrus, right posterior cingulate, and right parahippocampal cortex during relational retrieval, while the aMCI group, relative to the CN group, activated superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for this comparison. Such findings indicate an early shift in the functional neural architecture of relational retrieval in aMCI, and may prove useful in future studies aimed at capitalizing on functionally intact neural regions as targets for treatment and slowing of the disease course. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–12)
Coherently strained CdSe quantum structures are fabricated under varying dynamical growth conditions during the epitaxy of cubic CdSe on (100) ZnSe. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is employed to monitor the growth mode (2D vs. 3D). Conventional photoluminescence (PL) shows that both growth modes yield quantum structures with high PL efficiencies in which excitons are strongly localized by interface fluctuations at varying length scales. Spatially-resolved, near-field PL from quantum structures formed during 3D growth reveals reproducible fine structure in the PL spectrum attributed to emission from excitons laterally confined to quantum dot-like regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies suggest that these observations result from a combination of island growth and strain-driven interdiffusion.
As I sat down to organize my ideas in preparation for writing this chapter, I came to realize that my thinking and my research efforts have come full circle – or at the very least, that circle is closer than ever before to becoming closed. Almost thirty years ago, I moved to Denver, Colorado, to begin my career as a fledgling teacher. My experiences in my mixed-age classroom filled with 5-, 6-, and 7-year-olds kindled within me a deep interest in motivation and creativity of performance. My concerns about what our educational system was not doing to promote student growth in these areas became so great that I eventually left my elementary classroom to return to school myself. I was convinced that it was the field of psychology, and more specifically the study of the social psychology of creativity, that could best provide the answers I was looking for. As a graduate student and later as a professor of psychology, I have been almost single-minded in my attempts to answer empirically the question of how best to structure classrooms so that they are most conducive to student motivation and creativity. Over the past thirty-five years, researchers have contributed literally hundreds of investigations to the psychological and educational psychology literatures; for my own part, in the last few years, I have even been bold enough to end a few chapters or monographs with a “laundry list” of what teachers should and should not do if student intrinsic motivation and creativity are the goal.
During a period of 12 months in 2007 and 2008, a study of the parrot trade within Peru was carried out. In this study, 20 main wildlife markets were visited in eight cities in order to estimate the number of parrot species and individuals traded legally and illegally within a year. The study also gathered extra information from vendors and customers through informal interviews about the trade process. Additionally we contracted one person in two markets between February and May 2008 to monitor how many species and individuals entered the trade. During the study, four threatened species (the ‘Endangered’ Gray-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhoptera, the ‘Vulnerable’ Military Macaw Ara militaris, the ‘Vulnerable’ Yellow-faced Parrotlet Forpus xanthops and the ‘Near Threatened’ Red-masked Parakeet Aratinga erythrogenys) and one additional species listed in CITES Appendix 1 (Scarlet Macaw Ara macao) were found being traded. Thirty-four species were recorded in total, 33 of which are native to Peru (representing 63% of the 52 known Peruvian parrot species) and one of which (Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus) is native to Bolivia and Argentina. Our results show that even for the seven species which can be legally traded in Peru, the number of individuals being traded can greatly exceed the numbers that can officially be traded legally. We directly counted 4,722 parrots for sale and using a measured detection rate of 3% we estimate a total market size in the cities surveyed of between 80,000 and 90,000 individuals. As our surveys sampled only 8 out of Peru’s 24 departmental capitals and there are also other large cities, these numbers are likely to represent only a part of the total trade in Peru. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the first detailed studies of the internal trade in a source country for the international parrot trade. Our results suggest that such internal trade is likely to be a significant conservation issue that has previously been largely overlooked.