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Iconoclasm was the name given to the stance of that portion of Eastern Christianity that rejected worshipping God through images (eikones) representing Christ, the Virgin or the saints and was the official doctrine of the Byzantine Empire for most of the period between 726 and 843. It was a period marked by violent passions on either side. This is the first comprehensive account of the extant contemporary texts relating to this phenomenon and their impact on society, politics and identity. By examining the literary circles emerging both during the time of persecution and immediately after the restoration of icons in 843, the volume casts new light on the striking (re)construction of Byzantine society, whose iconophile identity was biasedly redefined by the political parties led by Theodoros Stoudites, Gregorios Dekapolites and Empress Theodora or the patriarchs Methodios, Ignatios and Photios. It thereby offers an innovative paradigm for approaching Byzantine literature.
TiO2-(B)/SnO2 nanostructured composites have been prepared by the combination of an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion reaction method (MRM) and a hydrothermal method. Its electrochemical properties were investigated as anode materials in lithium-ion battery, and characterization was carried out by XRD, BET, Raman, FE-SEM, EDXS, and TEM. The as-prepared composites consisted of monoclinic phase TiO2-(B) nanoribbons decorated with cassiterite structure SnO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performance of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite electrode showed higher reversible capacity of 265 mAh/g than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, 79 mAh/g, after 50 cycles at 0.1 C in a voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V at room temperature. In addition, the coulombic efficiency of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite remains at an average greater than 90% from the 2nd to the 50th cycles. The TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite presented the best balance between the mechanical support effect provided by TiO2-(B) that also contributes to the LIB capacity and the SnO2 that provides high specific capacity.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based physical exercise program on participants’ mental health: psychological symptoms, depression, and burden of female informal caregivers.
Design and participants:
In a randomized controlled trial, a sample of 48 female informal primary caregivers completed the entire study, 25 were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG), and 23 participants to the control group (CG).
Participants in the IG performed two 60-minute-long physical exercise sessions per week (36 weeks) that were supervised by a personal trainer at caregivers’ home during 9 months. The CG continued their habitual leisure-time activities.
Subjective burden was assessed by the Zarit Burden Interview. The risk of depression was measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form 15-item version, and psychological symptoms were evaluated by the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). All participants were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the intervention.
A promising positive impact of the intervention on caregivers’ subjective burden and risk of depression was found in the IG. In addition, no significant between-group differences were found in any of nine subscales scores of the SCL-90-R. Finally, care recipients’ level of functional independence and area of residence were found to be predictors of the promising positive impact on caregivers’ subjective burden and risk of depression.
The present home-based physical exercise intervention that was individually implemented has shown promising results to reduce subjective burden and risk of depression in female caregivers of relatives with dementia. However, future research efforts should elucidate both the particular dose of physical exercise and the particular duration of the intervention that are required to obtain the expected significant positive impact. Finally, future inclusion of psychological approaches, besides physical exercise, might help reduce female caregivers’ psychological symptoms.
Precious ornaments from the Museum Royal Tombs of Sipán were analyzed by X-ray computed microtomography (microCT). The ornaments analyzed were golden earrings produced by the Moche culture that flourished along the north coast of present-day Peru between approximately 100 and 600 AD. Sipán, also known as Huava Rajada, is a mochica archaeological complex in the north of Peru. In particular, the spectacular jewelry, mainly composed of gold, silver, and copper alloys, gilded copper, and tumbaga, from the Museum “Royal Tombs of Sipán,” in Lambayeque, north of Peru, are some of the most sophisticated metalworking ever produced of pre-Columbian America. A portable microCT system consisting of a high-resolution flat panel detector and a mini X-ray tube were used for the structural analysis of these ornaments. The microCT images show parts of the internal structure, highlighting the manufacturing technique and gold sheets joining techniques of the Moche artisans. Furthermore, the advantage of using the portable microCT system for nondestructive testing is clear when the sample cannot be taken to the laboratory.
To investigate the impact of the uncertainty stemming from products with European conditional marketing authorization (CMA) or authorization in exceptional circumstances (AEC) on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE) recommendations.
Products which received CMA/AEC by European Medicines Agency (EMA) up to 1 December 2016 were identified and matched with corresponding NICE decisions issued by August 2017, the status of which was then traced to August 2019. We assessed whether the conversion of CMA to full marketing authorization triggered a review of a NICE decision. The odds of a recommendation carrying a commercial arrangement for products with and without CMA/AEC were calculated.
Fifty-four products were granted CMA/AEC by EMA. NICE conducted thirty evaluations of products with CMA/AEC. Twelve products were recommended by NICE by August 2017 and fourteen by August 2019. All recommendations had an associated commercial arrangement. The odds of carrying a commercial arrangement were higher for products with CMA/AEC compared to those with full authorization. Conversions from conditional to full authorization among products not recommended by NICE did not trigger an appraisal review.
Uncertainty, stemming from the lack of robust clinical data of products authorized with CMA/AEC, has a substantial impact on HTA recommendations, frequently requiring risk mitigation mechanisms such as commercial and data collection arrangements. Further analyses should be conducted to assess whether the benefits of early access strategies outweigh the risks for patients and the healthcare system.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this project was to assess the scientific impact of Miami CTSI’s Mentored Career Development (KL2) Program using bibliometric tools and network visualization in addition to the traditional metrics used to provide a comprehensive evaluation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Scholarly productivity of KL2 scholars were tracked using REDCap. For bibliometric data analysis and visualization, publications were queried using iCite (NIH Office of Portfolio Analysis) and Web of Science database. A total of 173 publications produced by eight KL2 scholars from 2013-2018 were analyzed and categorized into pre-award, during award, and post-award periods. iCite was used to assess scientific influence and translation. Scientific networks and collaboration were visualized using VOSviewer (Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University). CTSA Common Metrics were tracked using the Results Based Accountability framework. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Albeit of modest size, the Miami CTSI’s KL2 Program had significant scientific productivity and impact in its first five years. Our KL2 scholars’ publications were cited twice as frequently as other papers in their fields. Further, 48% of publications post KL2 award were above the NIH 50th percentile and had higher citation impact compared to the average NIH-funded paper; 11% were in the top 10% NIH citation ranking. In contrast, only 20% of the publications pre-KL2 award were above the NIH 50th percentile. The program also promoted research collaboration; network visualizations indicate larger co-authorship and organization networks of KL2 scholars post-award. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Bibliometric and data visualization approaches helped us better identify trends and gauge effectiveness of the KL2 program. These findings provided useful insight into the scientific influence and impact of our scholars’ work.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this project was to a) evaluate the first five years of Miami CTSI’s Pilot Translational and Clinical Studies Program using outcome measures that quantify research productivity augmented by the CTSA Common Metrics; and b) use the results to shape future program management. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pilot Program applicant and awardee demographic data were collected during the first 5-year cycle of the Miami CTSI grant. Projects were categorized into the translation spectrum based on type of research using published guidelines. Research productivity from funded pilot projects were tracked annually using internal institutional grant award databases and external databases such as PubMed and NIH Reporter. CTSA Common Metrics were tracked using the Results Based Accountability framework. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR), NIH percentile and translation impact of pilot project publications were determined using the iCite tool (NIH Office of Portfolio Analysis). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The Miami CTSI’s Pilot Award Program demonstrated notable success in its first five years. Of the twenty-two projects that were funded during that time period, 45% led to follow-on funding for a total of $17.2M—a strong return on investment of 15:1. Further, 77% of awardees had at least one publication. A total of four patents and 43 publications resulted directly from the funded projects. The mean RCR for all publications was 2.7, weighted RCR was 99.87, and nine papers were been cited by clinical documents. Overall, 63% of the projects were classified as T1/T2 (pre-clinical/clinical research) and 37% as T3/T4 (post-clinical translational research/public health). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Miami CTSI’s Pilot Award Program demonstrated success in scholarly output, follow on funding, and scientific impact. These results will serve as benchmarks going forward and will allow the CTSI to leverage program strengths in collaborating with other institutional internal award mechanisms.
Complementary feeding (CF) and overweight relationships during early childhood are inconsistent in the literature. We described the association of CF during the first year of life with risk of overweight at 24 months of age in the population-based 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts (2004c and 2015c). CF introduction was evaluated at the 3 and 12 months’ follow-ups by asking mothers using a list of foods. Risk of overweight at 24 months of age was BMI-for-age z-score above +1sd from the median of the WHO 2006 growth standards. Our analyses included 3823 (2004c) and 3689 (2015c) children. Early introduction CF (before 6 months of age) prevalence in 2004c was 93·3 (95 % CI 92·5, 94·1) % and in 2015c was 87·2 (95 % CI 86·1, 88·2) %. Tea was the item introduced earlier in both 2004c (68·8 %) and 2015c (55·7 %). At 6 months of age, vegetable mash was the most introduced food in 2004c (33·5 %) and 2015c (47·9 %). Between 2004c and 2015c, the introduction of fresh milk decreased 82·1 to 60·5 % and yogurt from 94·4 to 78·1 % during the first year. Risk of overweight prevalence at 24 months was 33·0 (95 % CI 31·6, 34·5) % in 2004c and 32·0 (95 % CI 30·5, 33·5) % in 2015c. In 2015c, the adjusted odds of risk of overweight at 24 months were increased 1·66 and 1·50 times with the early introduction of fresh/powdered milk: plus water, tea or juice, and plus semi-solid/solid food groups, respectively. It is essential to reinforce the adherence to global recommendations on timely feeding introduction and encourage exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age to prevent child overweight.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder's (ADHD) prevalence in Bipolar Disorders (BD) and relatives.
78 admissions for Bipolar Disorder (DSM-IV) in Impatient Psychiatric Unit, in Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valladolid (Spain). Only 36/78 patients participate in study. Demographic, social and clinical information were registered. ADHD symptomatology was evaluated from patient and descendant (Conners short version).
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in childhood/adolescence were detected in 13,9% (5/36). Conners score were negative (below 15) in all case.
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in their children were detected in 6,25% (n=3). Conner score were positive in 2,1%. Family psychiatry history in 72,2% (n=26), affective disorder in 60,52% (n=23). No family history with ADHD diagnosis. Only one case (2,8%) with symptomatology suggestive of ADHD in relatives.
The ADHD prevalence in our sample of BD and relatives weren’t higher than general population.
- Frontiers Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. Cathryn A. Galanter, MDa, Ellen Leibenluft, MD. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17 (2008) 325-346.
- Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children.