To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common cyclic psychological and somatic disorder which reduces women’s quality of life. Evidence regarding the association between dietary patterns (DPs) and PMS is rare. The study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and PMS.
The case-control study was conducted among women with confirmed PMS and healthy individuals recruited from healthcare centres.
Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and DPs were derived using principal component analysis. The association between DPs and likelihood of PMS was determined using logistic regression.
In total, 225 women with PMS and 334 healthy participants aged 20–46 years took part in the study.
Three major DPs were identified: (i) ‘western DP’ characterized by high intake of fast foods, soft drink, and processed meats; (ii) ‘traditional DP’ in which eggs, tomato sauce, fruits, and red meat were highly loaded; and (iii) ‘healthy DP’ high in dried fruits, condiments and nuts. After taking all possible confounders into account, individuals in the highest tertile of the western DP were more likely to experience PMS (odds ratio (OR) = 1·49; 95 % CI: 1·01, 3·52), P < 0·001), whilst both healthy and traditional DP was inversely associated with the syndrome (OR = 0·31; 95 % CI: 0·17, 0·72, P = 0·02; OR = 0·33; 95 % CI: 0·14, 0·77, P = 0·01, respectively).
The western dietary patterns were positively associated with PMS, whilst the healthy and traditional dietary patterns were inversely associated with it. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings.
To assess agreement between established methods of estimating salt intake from spot urine collections and 24 h urinary Na (24hUNa) and then to develop a valid formula that can be used in the Iranian population to estimate salt intake from spot urine samples.
A validation study. Three spot urine samples were collected (fasting second-void morning; afternoon; evening) on the same day as a 24 h urine collection. We estimated 24hUNa from spot specimens using the Kawasaki, Tanaka and INTERSALT equations. Two new formulas were developed, the Iran formula 1 (Iran 1) and Iran formula 2 (Iran 2), based on our population characteristics.
Iranian adults recruited in 2014–2015.
Healthy volunteer adults aged ≥18 years.
With all three spot urine specimens, predicted population 24hUNa was underestimated based on the INTERSALT equation (−469 to −708 mg/d; all P < 0·05) and conversely overestimation occurred with the Kawasaki equation (926 to 1080 mg/d; all P < 0·01). The Tanaka equation produced comparable estimates to measured 24hUNa (–151 to 86 mg/d; all P > 0·49). The newly derived formulas, Iran 1 and Iran 2, showed less mean bias than the established equations (Iran 1: 43 to 80 mg/d, all P > 0·55; Iran 2: 22 to 90 mg/d, all P > 0·50).
In this Iranian sample, the Tanaka equation and newly derived formulas produced group-level estimates comparable to measured 24hUNa. The newly developed formulas showed less mean bias than established equations; however, they need to be tested for generalization in a larger sample.
The purpose of this study was to assess fetal cardiac function in normal fetuses (control group) compared to those who are exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus using different echocardiographic measurements, and to explore the application of left atrial shortening fraction in determination of fetal diastolic function with gestational diabetes mellitus.
A total of 50 women with gestational diabetes and 50 women with a healthy pregnancy were included in the study. Fetal echocardiography was performed and structural as well as functional fetal cardiac parameters were measured. Data were compared between with or without fetal myocardial hypertrophy and the control group.
In the study group, out of 50 fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers, 18 had myocardial hypertrophy and 32 had normal septal thickness. Gestational age at time of examination did not differ significantly between the control and gestational diabetes group (p = 0.55). Mitral E/A ratio was lower in gestational diabetes group as compared to the control (p < 0.001). Isovolumetric relaxation and contraction times and myocardial performance index were greater in fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers (p < 0.001). In fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers with myocardial hypertrophy, left atrial shortening fraction was lower as compared to those without myocardial hypertrophy and those of the control group (p < 0.001).
The results of this study suggest that fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers have altered cardiac function even in the absence of septal hypertrophy, and that left atrial shortening fraction can be used as a reliable alternate parameter in the assessment of fetal diastolic function.
Infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially who were under dialysis due to their depressed immunity. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasite that causes severe manifestations in immunocompromised patients. This case-control study was conducted to the immunodiagnosis and molecular validation of T. gondii infection among patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing haemodialysis. The study population consisted of 260 haemodialysis patients and 259 healthy controls referred to the main dialysis centres of Tehran, Iran during 2016. Anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As well, the T. gondii genomic DNA in whole blood samples of IgM-positive patients and healthy controls was evaluated using GRA6-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and SAG1-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 175 (67.3%) and 18 (7%) of haemodialysis patients and 122 (47%) and 4 (1.5%) of controls, respectively. Two of the 18 blood samples from IgM-positive patients and none of the IgM-positive control subjects were positive by GRA6-PCR. Whereas, nine and two blood samples of IgM-positive patients and controls were positive for Toxoplasma DNA by a SAG1-LAMP technique respectively. The seropositivity of the Toxoplasma IgM antibody was significantly different between haemodialysis patients and healthy controls which was confirmed by PCR and LAMP. The higher prevalence of T. gondii infection in haemodialysis patients compared with the controls proposes that these patients can be a group at risk for toxoplasmosis and screening for toxoplasmosis before dialysis is necessary for the patients.
In this paper, the design theory of an 8 GHz oscillator with a new structure of active dielectric resonator (DR) is presented. The new structure emphasizes on phase noise reduction by using only one active device. The proposed structure uses additional feedback from transistor to resonator in order to increase the quality factor. Measurement results report that phase noise is reduced to −145.19 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset frequency which represents 12 dB improvement compared with oscillators with passive DR. Also, in comparison with conventional active resonator oscillators, noise source of the second amplifier which makes spurious oscillation is removed. The size and power consumption are reduced due to the use of a single transistor. This structure has the lowest phase noise in comparison with other DR oscillators. In order to implement the proposed oscillator, a circuit including amplifier, resonator, coupler, and phase shifter is designed and realized.
In the last years of the eighteenth century, an Indian woman authored a work in Persian intended for the entertainment and guidance of students of that language. Entitled Miftāḥ-i Qulūb-i Mubtadiyān (‘The Key of the Hearts of Beginners’), the work comprised of stories from vernacular oral traditions as well as extracts from well-known Persian poetic, historical and ethical works. Although the work was translated into English in 1908 by Annette Beveridge, it has received no serious scholarly attention. Drawing upon recent scholarship offering new ways of thinking about India's multilingual literary past, this article examines the intersection of multiple vernacular and generic traditions as translated and manifested in Miftāḥ-i Qulūb al-Mubtadīyān. While vernacular languages followed different, and in relative terms, more limited routes of circulation and exchange in comparison with cosmopolitan languages such as Persian, their paths of movement were no less significant. Through a close reading of this work and its context, this article seeks to understand how Bībī Ḥashmat al-Daula crafted a distinct, cosmopolitan voice for herself through her deployment of both Persianate and regional Indian traditions.
To evaluate the implementation of the national health promotion programme (through nutritional education and Fe supplementation) among female high-school students in Iran and to assess the application of the crosswise model (CM) for evaluating the programme’s implementation.
Two cross-sectional surveys in female high-school students, one using the direct questioning (DQ) method and the other using the CM, were conducted. Two survey questionnaires used to collect the data contained questions about three aspects of the programme: delivering the Fe supplements, consuming them and holding nutritional training sessions.
Female high schools, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
A sample of 2180 students, of whom 1740 were surveyed by the CM and 440 were interviewed by DQ.
The CM resulted in estimates that were consistently lower than the estimates of the DQ. The proportion of students in the DQ and CM who reported receiving the pills weekly and on a regular basis was 73·2 and 22·5 %, respectively. About 43 and 31 % of students in the DQ and CM surveys reported consuming all pills delivered to them. In the DQ method, only 12 % of students who reported the number of pills consumed had taken the complete dose (sixteen pills).
Implementation of the Fe supplementation programme in female high schools was poor and insufficient, so that it seems unsuccessful in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in adolescent girls. The CM might be considered for evaluating the health programme’s implementation at high schools.
Exposure to stressful life events is an established risk factor for the development of adolescent mental disorder. Growing evidence also suggests that neighbourhood social environments, including strong social cohesion, could have a protective effect on mental health. However, little is known about how neighbourhood social cohesion may buffer against the effects of stressful life events on adolescent mental health. Our aim was to assess whether neighbourhood social cohesion modifies the association between stressful life events and adolescent mental health outcomes.
Data were drawn from a nationally-representative prospective sample of Canadian adolescents, including 5183 adolescents aged 12/13 years at T1 and 14/15 years at T2. Caregivers reported neighbourhood social cohesion at T1, and exposure to stressful life events between T1 and T2. Symptoms of mental health and behaviour problems were self-reported by adolescents at T1 and T2. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether the relationship between stressful life events and outcomes was modified by neighbourhood social cohesion.
Associations between stressful life events and adolescent outcomes were statistically significantly lower in neighbourhoods with greater social cohesion for: depression/anxiety (high cohesion OR = 0.98 v. low cohesion OR = 3.11), suicidal ideation (ORhigh = 1.30 v. ORlow = 5.25), aggression/conduct disorder (ORhigh = 1.09 v. ORlow = 4.27), and property offence (ORhigh = 1.21 v. ORlow = 4.21).
Greater neighbourhood social cohesion appeared to buffer the effects of stressful life events on several domains of adolescent mental health. This potentially presents a target for public health intervention to improve adolescent mental health and behavioural outcomes.
We consider a family of higher-dimensional non-commutative tori, which are twisted analogues of the algebras of continuous functions on ordinary tori and their Toeplitz extensions. Just as solenoids are inverse limits of tori, our Toeplitz non-commutative solenoids are direct limits of the Toeplitz extensions of non-commutative tori. We consider natural dynamics on these Toeplitz algebras, and we compute the equilibrium states for these dynamics. We find a large simplex of equilibrium states at each positive inverse temperature, parametrized by the probability measures on an (ordinary) solenoid.
The objective of this study was to assess differences in myocardial systolic and diastolic function and vascular function in children 2−5 years of age born to diabetic as compared to non-diabetic mothers.
This study was a retrospective cohort conducted in 2016 at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. It included children between 2 and 5 years of age born to mothers with and without exposure to diabetes in utero (n = 68 in each group) and who were appropriate for gestational age. Myocardial morphology and function using echocardiogram and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity was performed to evaluate cardiac function as well as macrovascular remodelling in these children. Multiple linear regression was used to compare the groups.
There was no significant difference in cardiac morphology, myocardial systolic and diastolic function, and macrovascular assessment between the exposed and unexposed groups of AGA children. Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased mitral E/A ratio in children whose mothers were on medications as compared to those on dietary control (median [IQR] = 1.7 [1.6–1.9] and 1.56 [1.4–1.7], respectively, p = 0.02), and a higher cIMT in children whose mothers were on medication as compared to controls (0.48 [0.44–0.52] and 0.46 [0.44–0.50], respectively, p = 0.03).
In utero exposure to uncontrolled maternal diabetes has an effect on the cardiovascular structure and function in children aged 2−5 years. However, future work requires long-term follow-up from fetal to adult life to assess these changes over the life course.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study’s aims are to optimize the isolation and growth of chondrocytes from pig auricular cartilage; to identify the ideal seeding conditions onto 3D printed auricular bioscaffolds to maximize chondrocyte growth; and to investigate what quantity and types of host tissue can grow on the bioscaffold. Primary outcomes will include comparisons between different seeding conditions in various objective measures of bioscaffold growth and survival as listed in the methods section. Secondary outcomes will include continued optimization of bioscaffolds to minimize extrusion rates and maximize morphologic and histologic similarity to human auricular cartilage. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: For chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds, cartilage will be collected from freshly harvested porcine auricular tissue and digested in type II collagenase. Chondrocytes derived from the harvest will be seeded into auricular PCL scaffolds using a type I collagen/hyaluronic acid composite gel, which has been previously shown to support chondrogenesis. For scaffolds containing cartilage, punch biopsies will be collected and embedded in specific areas of the scaffold previously shown to experience excessive stress/strain compared to the rest of the construct. From there, five of each chondrocyte-seeded bioscaffolds, chondrocyte-unseeded bioscaffolds, and cartilage-containing bioscaffolds will be implanted into athymic rats. Total follow up will be for six months, with outcomes as measured by clinical assessments, morphologic measurements, radiological imaging, histological analysis, biomechanical evaluation, and photodocumentation. Once these measures are obtained, we will work closely with Dr. Myra Kim, an adjunct professor with the Biostatistics Department, to appropriately analyze differences between the models. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We believe that while all scaffolds (chondrocyte-seeded, chondrocyte-unseeded, and cartilage-containing) will be structurally sound, the chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds and cartilage-containing scaffolds will exhibit improved soft tissue coverage and have lower exposure and fracture rates. Additionally, between the two, we posit that there will not be appreciable differences histologically, radiologically, or morphologically. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Auricular reconstruction is a geometrically complex and technically challenging problem. Reconstruction hinges on the physical characteristics of the deformity, patient preferences, and reconstructive materials available. The current gold standard for auricular reconstruction uses autologous rib cartilage as foundational support for overlying soft tissue and these techniques involve freehand carving of the cartilage, requiring high levels of technical skill. Harvesting the materials for this procedure is invasive, and the outcomes of the surgery are largely variable and sometimes undesirable. As alternatives, implantable scaffolds including those made from high density porous polyethylene (commercially referred to as MedPor) have been investigated. However, many of these have proven inadequate due to factors including infection, extrusion, and morphologic and biomechanical dissimilarity from native tissue. 3D printing represents an exciting new avenue through which to address many of these difficulties. Our group has previously demonstrated the successful design, production, and implantation of 3D-printed models: in auricular reconstruction, we have demonstrated the successful creation and implementation of a 3D printed ear scaffold into an athymic rodent model. We now turn our attention to optimization of seeding of our ear scaffold with chondrocytes derived from porcine auricular cartilage or with cartilage punch biopsies, all while maintaining emphasis on regulatory feasibility. With success in this arena, we will be able to provide a much less invasive and technically challenging alternative to the current gold standard, create patient-specific bioscaffolds which are more form fitting and individualized, and provide children with ear malformations better alternatives and treatments for their conditions.
The purpose of this study is the verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) head neck treatment planning with one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) dosimeters using imaging and radiation oncology core (IROC) Houston head & neck (H&N) phantom.
The image of the H&N phantom was obtained by computed tomography scan which was then transferred to Pinnacle@3 treatment planning system (TPS) for treatment planning. The contouring of the target volumes and critical organ were done manually and dose constraints were set for each organ according to IROC prescription. The plan was optimised by adoptive convolution algorithm to meet the IROC criteria and collapse cone convolution algorithm calculated the delivered doses for treatment. Varian Clinac 2110 was used to deliver the treatment plan to the phantom, the process of irradiation and measurement were repeated three times for reproducibility and reliability. The treatment plan was verified by measuring the doses from thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic external beam therapy 2 films. The agreement between the planned and delivered doses were checked by calculating the percentage dose differences, analysing their isodose line profiles and 2D gamma maps.
The average percent dose difference of 1·8% was obtained between computed doses by TPS and measured doses from TLDs, however these differences were found to be higher for organ at risk. The film dose profile was well in agreement with the planned dose distribution with distance to agreement of 1·5 mm. The gamma analysis of the computed and recorded doses passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm with passing percentages of >96%, which shows successful authentication of delivered doses for IMRT.
IMRT pre-treatment validation can be done with IROC anthropomorphic phantoms, which is essential for the delivery of modulated radiotherapies. It was concluded that films and TLDs can be used as quality assurance tools for IMRT.
This study aimed to assess the relationship between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a validated tool for evaluating diet-associated inflammation, and anthropometric indices in children and adolescents. This multicentre survey was conducted on 5427 school students selected via multistage cluster sampling from thirty provinces of Iran. This survey was conducted under the framework of the weight disorders survey, which is part of a national surveillance programme entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Diseases-IV. For calculating the DII scores, twenty-five dietary factors were obtained from a validated 168-item FFQ. Height, weight, wrist circumference, neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured. BMI z-score, waist circumference:hip circumference ratio (WHR), waist circumference:height ratio (WHtR) and parental BMI were computed. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association of DII and anthropometric indices. Significant trends were observed across quartiles of DII score for all anthropometric indices in all participants (P <0·05), except for WHR and WHtR. After adjustment for potential confounders, the multiple linear regression analysis for each anthropometric index revealed that participants in the highest DII quartile had higher BMI z-score, WC, HC and parental BMI compared with those in the first (or lowest) quartile. In summary, we found that a pro-inflammatory diet was associated with higher BMI z-score, wrist circumference, NC, WC, HC and parental BMI. The large sample size of the present study may influence the statistical significance of observed associations. Hence, the findings should be clinically interpreted with caution.
To verify dose delivery and quality assurance of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for head and neck (H&N) cancer.
The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC-H) H&N phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and films, were imaged with computed tomography scan and the reconstructed image was transferred to pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS). On TPS, the planning target volume (PTV), secondary target volume (STV) and organ at risk (OAR) were delineated manually and a treatment plan was made. The dose constraints were determined for the concerned organs according to IROC-H prescription. The treatment plan was optimised using adoptive convolution algorithm to improve dose homogeneity and conformity. The dose calculation was performed using C.C Convolution algorithm and a Varian True Beam linear accelerator was used to deliver the treatment plan to the H&N phantom. The delivered radiation dose to the phantom was measured through TLDs and GafChromic external beam radiotherapy 2 (EBT2) films. The dosimetric performance of the VMAT delivery was studied by analysing percent dose difference, isodose line profile and gamma analysis of the TPS-computed dose and linac-delivered doses.
The percent dose difference of 3.8% was observed between the planned and measured doses of TLDs and a 1.5-mm distance to agreement (DTA) was observed by comparing isodose line profiles. Passed the gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm was with good percentages.
The dosimetric performance of VMAT delivery for a challenging H&N radiotherapy can be verified using TLDs and films embedded in an anthropomorphic H&N phantom.
Little is known about the genetic and morphological characters of Taenia ovis. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sheep isolates of T. ovis using rostellar hook morphometry as well as mitochondrial genes sequence analysis. Ninety sheep specimens of Cysticercus ovis were collected from 18 slaughterhouses in Iran. The mean ± s.d. for total length of large and small hooks were 174.1 ± 6.4 and 116.7 ± 5.4 µm, respectively. CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence analysis showed 11 and nine haplotypes, respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variations between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were 0.3–1.1 and 0.2–1.0%, respectively. Level of nucleotide variation in CO1 and 12S rRNA between T. ovis haplotypes from present study and eight other Taenia species was found to be 11.3–17.8 and 5.3–16.3%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all T. ovis isolates into a single clade comprised of the all CO1 and 12S rRNA haplotypes. CO1 nucleotide difference between T. ovis ovis and T. asiatica was 13.6% that is lesser than the corresponding difference between T. ovis ovis and T. ovis krabbei, warranting the designation of two separate species as T. ovis and T. krabbei. Interclass correlation coefficients showed that there was no significant association between rostellar hook length variation and the variability of the mitochondrial genes.
We aimed to assess the possible relationship between food allergy and two key adipokines – leptin and adiponectin – in children with food allergy. A total of forty patients with definite diagnosis of food allergy according to clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) for food allergens (group I) were enrolled in this pilot study. The control group (group II) included thirty children with no evidence of allergic symptoms. Serum levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. Meanwhile, sIgE was measured for the eight most common food allergens by the immunoblot method in all participants. The median ages in groups I and II were 18·5 and 23·5 months, respectively. The respective Caesarean section rate was 64·9 and 16·7 % in groups I and II (P<0·001). Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in the patient group compared with controls (24·11 (sd 12·14) v. 10·67 (sd 12·23) μg/ml, P<0·001), whereas no statistically meaningful difference was detected in serum leptin concentrations (P=0·92). There was a significant inverse relationship between age and adiponectin levels in group I (P=0·002, r –0·479) and group II (P=0·04, r –0·365), and it was more significant in group I. The most common allergens in the patient group were wheat (52·5 %), hazelnut (52·5 %), cow’s milk (50 %) and egg white (30 %). The results of this study suggest an essential link between adiponectin and food allergy that is probably unlikely to be affected by obesity as a confounding factor.
Abdominal obesity (AO) is a relative risk factor for cardiovascular events. We aimed to determine the 6-year incidence of AO and its risk factors among Tehranian adults.
In this population-based cohort study, non-abdominally obese participants, aged ≥20 years, were followed for incidence of AO. Cumulative incidence and incidence rate of AO were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential risk factors including age, BMI, dysmetabolic state, smoking, marital status, educational level and physical activity (PA).
A total of 5044 participants (1912 men) were followed for a median of 6 years. Mean age was 37·7 (sd 13·5) years at baseline, with mean BMI of 24·3 (sd 3·1) kg/m2 (men, 23·0 (sd 2·4) kg/m2; women, 25·0 (sd 3·2) kg/m2). During follow-up, 3093 (1373 men) developed AO with total cumulative incidence of 76·02, 83·59 and 70·90 %, for the whole population, men and women, respectively. Corresponding incidence rates were 96·0, 138·7 and 77·1 per 1000 person-years. The highest incidence rate was observed during their 30s and 50s, in men and women, respectively. Subjects with dysmetabolic state in both sexes, married women, men with lower PA and higher educational levels at baseline were at higher risk of AO.
The incidence of AO is high among Tehranian adults, especially in young men. The risk factors for developing AO should be highlighted to halt this growing trend of AO.