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Western science entered the Pacific with James Cook’s three expeditions commencing in 1768. These and those that followed were made possible by scientific advances, especially in relation to long-distance navigation at sea and the control of scurvy among ships’ crews. Partly prompted by dreams of national glory and imperial expansion, they were ostensibly undertaken for purely scientific purposes – to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun in 1768, to expand geographical understanding, to obtain information about a vast portion of the Earth’s surface little known to Europeans.
We characterized the impact of removal of the ESBL designation from microbiology reports on inpatient antibiotic prescribing. Definitive prescribing of carbapenems decreased from 48.4% to 16.1% (P = .01) and β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor combination increased from 19.4% to 61.3% (P = .002). Our findings confirm the importance of collaboration between microbiology and antimicrobial stewardship programs.
In glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems, paraquat applied in mixtures with residual herbicides prior to crop emergence offers an alternative herbicide mode of action (MOA) to aid in GR weed management. Rice is sensitive to off-target herbicide movement; however, severity of injury can vary with herbicide, rate and formulation. Therefore, research was conducted from 2015 to 2017 in Stoneville, MS, to characterize rice response to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat applied at 84 g ai ha-1 in combination with common residual herbicides. Paraquat plus metribuzin injured rice 68 to 69% 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), which was 10 to 13% greater than following paraquat alone or paraquat plus fomesafen. Pooled across metribuzin and fomesafen treatments, paraquat reduced rough rice yields 23%. Paraquat plus 10 different residual herbicides injured rice ≥51% 28 DAT and reduced rough rice yields ≥21%. These studies indicate a severe negative impact on rice growth and development following exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat alone or in mixture with common residual herbicides. Therefore, applications of paraquat plus residual herbicides to fields in proximity to rice should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement.
This article was first conceived as a commemorative address for the centenary of the extinction of the Habsburg monarchy, which occurred in November 1918. It seeks to take a correspondingly broad view, geographically and chronologically, of the factors that occasioned that collapse. It addresses three main themes, structured loosely around three classic historiographical analyses of the monarchy as a whole. The great irony of the last phase of Habsburg rule in Central Europe is that it was undermined by precisely those elements in the politics and society of the region that seemed, on the face of things, to derive most advantage from it. The article concentrates on the long-term dysfunctionality caused by the evolution of the Hungarian and German problems, and by the progressive enfeeblement of dynastic institutions. It also engages more briefly with a countervailing phenomenon, that some of those interests most conspicuously spurned by central government might have been the readiest to rescue it. On the argument presented here, World War I, which finally brought the monarchy low, was a catalyst rather than an independent determiner of that outcome.
There is increasing interest in day-to-day affect fluctuations of patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Few studies have compared repeated assessments of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across diagnostic groups, and fluctuation patterns were not uniformly defined. The aim of this study is to compare affect fluctuations in patients with a current episode of depressive or anxiety disorder, in remitted patients and in controls, using affect instability as a core concept but also describing other measures of variability and adjusting for possible confounders.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data were obtained from 365 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with current (n = 95), remitted (n = 178) or no (n = 92) DSM-IV defined depression/anxiety disorder. For 2 weeks, five times per day, participants filled-out items on PA and NA. Affect instability was calculated as the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). Tests on group differences in RMSSD, within-person variance, and autocorrelation were performed, controlling for mean affect levels.
Current depression/anxiety patients had the highest affect instability in both PA and NA, followed by remitters and then controls. Instability differences between groups remained significant when controlling for mean affect levels, but differences between current and remitted were no longer significant.
Patients with a current disorder have higher instability of NA and PA than remitted patients and controls. Especially with regard to NA, this could be interpreted as patients with a current disorder being more sensitive to internal and external stressors and having suboptimal affect regulation.
It is known that the level of dietary protein modulates the enzymatic activity of the digestive tract of fish; however, its effect at the molecular level on these enzymes and the hormones regulating appetite has not been well characterised. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP on the activity of proteases and the expression of genes related to the ingestion and protein digestion of juveniles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), as well as the effects on performance, protein retention and body composition of tilapia. A total of 240 juveniles (29.32 ± 5.19 g) were used, distributed across 20 tanks of 100 l in a closed recirculation system. The fish were fed to apparent satiety for 42 days using four isoenergetic diets with different CP levels (24%, 30%, 36% and 42%). The results indicate that fish fed the 30% CP diet exhibited a higher growth performance compared to those on the 42% CP diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake in fish fed 24% and 30% CP diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed 36% and 42% CP diets (P < 0.05). A significant elevation of protein retention was observed in fish fed with 24% and 30% CP diets. Fish fed with 24% CP exhibited a significant increase in lipid deposition in the whole body. The diet with 42% CP was associated with the highest expression of pepsinogen and the lowest activity of acid protease (P < 0.05). The expression of hepatopancreatic trypsinogen increased as CP levels in the diet increased (P < 0.05) up to 36%, whereas trypsin activity showed a significant reduction with 42% CP (P < 0.05). The diet with 42% CP was associated with the lowest intestinal chymotrypsinogen expression and the lowest chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.05). α-amylase expression decreased with increasing (P < 0.05) CP levels up to 36%. No significant differences were observed in the expression of procarboxypeptidase, lipase or leptin among all the groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the diet with 42% CP resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in the expression of ghrelin and insulin and an increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of cholecystokinin and peptide yy. It is concluded that variation in dietary protein promoted changes in the metabolism of the red tilapia, which was reflected in proteolytic activity and expression of digestion and appetite-regulating genes.
Evolving conditions at the terminus of Thwaites Glacier will be important in determining the rate of its future sea-level contribution over the coming decades. Here, we use remote-sensing observations to investigate recent changes (2000–2018) in the structure and velocity of Thwaites Glacier and its floating tongue. We show that the main trunk of Thwaites Glacier has accelerated by 38% over this period, while its previously intact floating tongue has transitioned to a weaker mélange of fractured icebergs bounded by sea ice. However, the rate of structural weakening and acceleration was not uniform across the observational period and we identify two periods of rapid acceleration and structural weakening (2006–2012; 2016–2018), separated by a period of deceleration and re-advance of the structurally-intact shear margin boundary (2012–2015). The timing of these accelerations/decelerations strongly suggests a link to variable ocean forcing. The weakened tongue now has some dependency on landfast sea ice for structural integrity and is vulnerable to changes in landfast ice persistency. Future reductions in landfast sea ice could manifest from changes in climate and/or the imminent removal of the B-22A iceberg from the Thwaites embayment. Such changes could have important implications for the integrity of the ice tongue and future glacier discharge.
We used a combination of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, and stratigraphic data from cores collected along the southern margin of the Green Bay Lobe (GBL) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to provide new information on the timing and dynamics of the end of advance of the GBL and the dynamics of the ice sheet while very near its maximum position. Coring at multiple sites along the margin of the GBL indicate that ice had reached a stable position near its maximum extent by 24.7 ka; that ice advanced several kilometers to the Marine Isotope Stage 2 maximum position sometime shortly after 21.2 ka; and that ice remained at or beyond that position through the time interval represented by an OSL age estimate of 19.2 ± 3.2 ka. The timeline developed from these chronological data is internally consistent with, and further refines, AMS radiocarbon ages and OSL age estimates previously published for the southern margin of the GBL. It also provides new chronological control on the expansion of the GBL from its late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 extent to its MIS 2 maximum.
Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult females. Male androphilia is considered one of the outstanding paradoxes of evolutionary biology because its very existence flouts our expectations concerning what constitutes an evolutionarily viable trait (Bailey & Zuk, 2009). In humans, male androphilia is heritable, as evinced by twin studies (Alanko et al., 2010; Bailey et al., 2000; Kendler et al., 2000; Långström et al., 2010), as well as research in the area of molecular genetics (Hamer et al., 1993; Mustanski et al.,2005; Sanders et al., 2015). Despite the heritability of this trait, androphilic males reproduce at far lower rates when compared to gynephilic males, if they reproduce at all, which, very often, they do not (e.g., Bell & Weinberg, 1978; King et al., 2005; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Schwartz et al., 2010).
Recently, we found that in ovo feeding of l-leucine (l-Leu) afforded thermotolerance, stimulated lipid metabolism and modified amino acid metabolism in male broiler chicks. However, the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on thermoregulation and growth performance until marketing age of broilers are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on body weight (BW) gain under control thermoneutral temperature or chronic heat stress. We measured changes of body temperature and food intake, organ weight, as well as amino acid metabolism and plasma metabolites under acute and chronic heat stress in broilers. A total of 168 fertilized Chunky broiler eggs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups in experiments. The eggs were in ovo fed with l-Leu (34.5 µmol/500 µl per egg) or sterile water (500 µl/egg) during incubation. After hatching, male broilers were selected and assigned seven to nine replicates (one bird/replicate) in each group for heat challenge experiments. Broilers (29- or 30-day-old) were exposed to acute heat stress (30 ± 1°C) for 120 min or a chronic heat cyclic and continued heat stress (over 30 ± 1°C; ages, 15 to 44 days). In ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significant suppression of enhanced body temperature without affecting food intake, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, lactic acid or thyroid hormones under acute heat stress. Daily body temperature was significantly increased by l-Leu in ovo feeding under chronic heat stress. Interestingly, in ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significantly higher daily BW gain compared with that of the control group under chronic heat stress. Moreover, some essential amino acids, including Leu and isoleucine, were significantly increased in the liver and decreased in the plasma by l-Leu in ovo feeding under acute heat stress. These results suggested that l-Leu in ovo feeding afforded thermotolerance to broilers under acute heat stress mainly through changing amino acid metabolism until marketing age.
To identify risk factors of patients placed in airborne infection isolation (AII) for possible pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) to better predict TB diagnosis and allow more judicious use of AII.
Case-control, retrospective study at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. The study included all adult patients admitted from October 1, 2014, through October 31, 2017, who were placed in AII for possible pulmonary TB. Cases were defined as those ultimately diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Controls were defined as those not diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Those with TB diagnosed prior to admission were excluded. In total, 662 admissions (558 patients) were included.
Overall, 15 cases of pulmonary TB were identified (2.7%); of these, 2 were people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). Statistical analysis was limited by low case number. Those diagnosed with pulmonary TB were more likely to have been born outside the United States (53% vs 13%; P < .001) and to have had prior positive TB testing, regardless of prior treatment (50% vs 19%; P = .015). A multivariate analysis using non–US birth and prior positive TB testing predicted an 18.2% probability of pulmonary TB diagnosis when present, compared with 1.0% if both factors were not present.
The low number of pulmonary TB cases indicated AII overuse, especially in PLWH, and more judicious use of AII is warranted. High-risk groups, including those born outside the United States and those with prior positive TB testing, should be considered for AII in the appropriate clinical setting.
Wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations together with empirical modelling for turbulent Taylor–Couette (TC) flow are presented. LES were performed with the inner cylinder rotating at angular velocity
and the outer cylinder stationary. With
the inner and outer radii respectively, the radius ratio is
. The subgrid-scale stresses are represented using the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model while the flow is resolved close to the wall. LES is implemented in the range
is the cylinder gap. It is shown that the LES can capture the salient features of the flow, including the quantitative behaviour of spanwise Taylor rolls, the log variation in the inner-cylinder mean-velocity profile and the angular momentum redistribution due to the presence of Taylor rolls. A simple empirical model is developed for the turbulent, TC flow for both a stationary outer cylinder and also for co-rotating cylinders. This consists of near-wall, log-like turbulent wall layers separated by an annulus of constant angular momentum. Model results include the Nusselt number
(torque required to maintain the flow) and measures of the wall-layer thickness as functions of both the Taylor number
. These are compared with results from measurement, direct numerical simulation and the LES. A model extension to rough-wall turbulent flow is described. This shows an asymptotic, fully rough-wall state where the torque is independent of
, and where
This paper describes initial experimental results from an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. Femtosecond-pulsed coherent EUV radiation of 29.6 nm wavelength (41.85 eV photon energy), obtained through high harmonic generation in an Ar-filled hollow capillary waveguide, successfully triggered controlled field ion emission from the apex of amorphous SiO2 specimens. The calculated composition is stoichiometric within the error of the measurement and effectively invariant of the specimen base temperature in the range of 25 K to 150 K. Photon energies available in the EUV band are significantly higher than those currently used in the state-of-the-art near-ultraviolet laser-pulsed atom probe, which enables the possibility of additional ionization and desorption pathways. Pulsed coherent EUV light is a new and potential alternative to near-ultraviolet radiation for atom probe tomography.
The Bemisia tabaci species complex is one of the most important pests of open field and protected cropping globally. Within this complex, one species (Middle East Asia Minor 1, B. tabaci MEAM1, formerly biotype B) has been especially problematic, invading widely and spreading a large variety of plant pathogens, and developing broad spectrum pesticide resistance. Here, we fit a CLIMEX model to the distribution records of B. tabaci MEAM1, using experimental observations to calibrate its temperature responses. In fitting the model, we consider the effects of irrigation and glasshouses in extending its potential range. The validated niche model estimates its potential distribution as being considerably broader than its present known distribution, especially in the Americas, Africa and Asia. The potential distribution of the fitted model encompasses the known distribution of B. tabaci sensu lato, highlighting the magnitude of the threat posed globally by this invasive pest species complex and the viruses it vectors to open field and protected agriculture.
This experimental study explores the physical mechanisms by which a transverse jet’s upstream shear layer can transition from being a convective instability to an absolute/global instability as the jet-to-cross-flow momentum flux ratio
is reduced. As first proposed in computational studies by Iyer & Mahesh (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 790, 2016, pp. 275–307), the upstream shear layer just beyond the jet injection may be analogous to a local counter-current shear layer, which is known for a planar geometry to become absolutely unstable at a large enough counter-current shear layer velocity ratio,
. The present study explores this analogy for a range of transverse jet momentum flux ratios and jet-to-cross-flow density ratios
, for jets containing differing species concentrations (nitrogen, helium and acetone vapour) at several different jet Reynolds numbers. These studies make use of experimental data extracted from stereo particle image velocimetry as well as simultaneous stereo particle image velocimetry and acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging. They provide experimental evidence for the relevance of the counter-current shear layer analogy to upstream shear layer instability transition in a nozzle-generated transverse jet.
Schoenaster carterensis new species, is an asteroid-like ophiuroid (Echinodermata) from Upper Mississippian (Chesterian) shallow-water carbonates in the Ramey Creek Member of the Slade Formation in northeastern Kentucky. First described in the 1860s from Lower and Middle Mississippian rocks, Schoenaster Meek and Worthen, 1860 is not a well-known fossil genus, but the 39 specimens in this collection permitted further definition of the genus and extended its range by ca. 17 Ma into Late Mississippian (Chesterian) time. The number of specimens also permitted differentiation of growth stages based on average arm length and showed that arm length, disk perimeter, and disk area are interrelated in statistically significant ways. Although replaced by chert, the specimens are nearly intact due to rapid burial as rare constituents in habitat communities distributed among four once-contiguous habitats, including shoal, shoal margin, transitional, and basinal. Most of the ophiuroids were concentrated on firm grounds or hardgrounds in shoal and transitional environments, concentrations that probably reflect substratum stability and the ability to support the ophiuroid's generalist feeding strategy. Many fossil ophiuroid species are known from only a few specimens, severely limiting interpretations about their detailed taxonomy, individual variation, and ecology. In contrast, the greater number of specimens and extensive knowledge of geologic occurrence in this study permitted detailed interpretations regarding the taxonomic, intraspecific, and ecologic attributes of this species, which might be useful in the study of other fossil ophiuroids.
The dependence of confinement on input power for a tokamak plasma with regions having a stiff temperature profile is explored. The resilience of the confinement of the core energy to increasing power loss by core radiation from impurities in such situations, as it is anticipated will be required in a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) design, is examined.
The objective of this paper was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of a community-based intervention for hoarding disorder (HD) using Cognitive Rehabilitation and Exposure/Sorting Therapy (CREST).
This was a mixed-method, pre-post quasi-experimental study informed by the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model for implementation science.
Program activities took place in San Diego County, mainly within clients’ homes or community, with some activities in-office.
Participants were aged 60 years or older, met eligibility for Medi-Cal or were uninsured, and met criteria for HD.
A manualized, mobile protocol that incorporated CREST was utilized.
The Clutter Image Rating and Hoarding Rating Scale were used as effectiveness outcomes. An investigator-created staff questionnaire was used to evaluate implementation.
Thirty-seven clients were reached and enrolled in treatment and 15 completed treatment during the initial 2 years of the program. There were significant changes in hoarding severity and clutter volume. Based on the initial 2 years of the program, funding was provided for expansion to cover additional San Diego County regions and hire more staff clinicians in year three.
Preliminary data suggest that the CREST intervention can be successfully implemented in a community setting with positive results for older adults with HD.