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Sedentary behaviour can be associated with poor mental health, but it remains unclear whether all types of sedentary behaviour have equivalent detrimental effects.
To model the potential impact on depression of replacing passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours and with light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. An additional aim was to explore these relationships by self-report data and clinician diagnoses of depression.
In 1997, 43 863 Swedish adults were initially surveyed and their responses linked to patient registers until 2010. The isotemporal substitution method was used to model the potential impact on depression of replacing 30 min of passive sedentary behaviour with equivalent durations of mentally active sedentary behaviour, light physical activity or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Outcomes were self-reported depression symptoms (cross-sectional analyses) and clinician-diagnosed incident major depressive disorder (MDD) (prospective analyses).
Of 24 060 participants with complete data (mean age 49.2 years, s.d. 15.8, 66% female), 1526 (6.3%) reported depression symptoms at baseline. There were 416 (1.7%) incident cases of MDD during the 13-year follow-up. Modelled cross-sectionally, replacing 30 min/day of passive sedentary behaviour with 30 min/day of mentally active sedentary behaviour, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous activity reduced the odds of depression symptoms by 5% (odds ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97), 13% (odds ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–1.00) and 19% (odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.93–0.90), respectively. Modelled prospectively, substituting 30 min/day of passive with 30 min/day of mentally active sedentary behaviour reduced MDD risk by 5% (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99); no other prospective associations were statistically significant.
Substituting passive with mentally active sedentary behaviours, light activity or moderate-to-vigorous activity may reduce depression risk in adults.
The Icelandic crust is characterized by low δ18O values that originate from pervasive high-temperature hydrothermal alteration by 18O-depleted meteoric waters. Igneous rocks in Iceland with δ18O values significantly higher than unaltered oceanic crust (~5.7‰) are therefore rare. Here we report on rhyolitic intra-caldera samples from a cluster of Neogene central volcanoes in Borgarfjörður Eystri, Northeast Iceland, that show whole-rock δ18O values between +2.9 and +17.6‰ (n = 6), placing them among the highest δ18O values thus far recorded for Iceland. Extra-caldera rhyolite samples from the region, in turn, show δ18O whole-rock values between +3.7 and +7.8‰ (n = 6), consistent with the range of previously reported Icelandic rhyolites. Feldspar in the intra-caldera samples (n = 4) show δ18O values between +4.9 and +18.7‰, whereas pyroxene (n = 4) shows overall low δ18O values of +4.0 to +4.2‰, consistent with regional rhyolite values. In combination with the evidence from mineralogy and rock H2O contents, the high whole-rock δ18O values of the intra-caldera rhyolites appear to be the result of pervasive isotopic exchange during subsolidus hydrothermal alteration with 18O-enriched water. This alteration conceivably occurred in a near-surface hot spring environment at the distal end of an intra-caldera hydrothermal system, and was probably fed by waters that had already undergone significant isotope exchange with the country rock. Alternatively, 18O-enriched alteration fluids may have been produced during evaporation and boiling of standing water in former caldera lakes, which then interacted with the intra-caldera rock suites. Irrespective of the exact exchange processes involved, a previously unrecognized and highly localized δ18O-enriched rock composition exists on Iceland and thus probably within the Icelandic crust too.
The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications). The panel discussion ‘Traditional methods v. new technologies: dilemmas for dietary assessment in population surveys’, was held at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, September 2015. Despite respondent and researcher burden, traditional methods have been most commonly used in nutrition surveys. However, dietary assessment technologies offer potential advantages including faster data processing and better data quality. This is a fast-moving field and there is evidence of increasing demand for the use of new technologies amongst the general public and researchers. There is a need for research and investment to support efforts being made to facilitate the inclusion of new technologies for rapid, accurate and representative data.
Reassessment of key geological sections, field relationships and petrographical characteristics of the Northern Ireland ‘Clay-with-Flints’ and ‘Donald's Hill Ignimbrite Formation’ show they formed dominantly by sedimentary processes. The involvement of a previously postulated pyroclastic flow during early Paleocene time is not recognized and, as such, the Donald's Hill Ignimbrite Formation stratigraphic term is discounted. Instead a multistage model of formation by sedimentary accumulation and remobilization is presented and the term Clay-with-Flints is retained. Regionally, two dominant facies are recognized in most Clay-with-Flints sections. Facies 1 was formed by an initial accumulation of flints on a chalk landscape undergoing karstification, and involved deposition of a clay matrix derived predominantly from contemporaneous erosion of subtropical soil horizons formed mainly on basalt. In Facies 2, evidence is observed for widespread remobilization of Facies 1 deposits by high-density mudflows driven by the advancement of the Antrim Lava Group, which caused the blockage of subsurface and marginalization of surface drainage. A stratigraphical constraint imposed by the presence of a supposed ignimbrite in this part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province has been problematic, but this is resolved by its identification as a diachronous, sedimentary deposit that formed until buried by either the lower or upper formations of the Antrim Lava Group.
The ancient Anatolian city of Kanesh (present-day Kültepe, Turkey) was a continuously inhabited site from the early Bronze Age through Roman times. The city flourished c.2000–1750 BCE as an Old Assyrian trade outpost and the earliest attested commercial society in world history. More than 23,000 elaborate clay tablets from private merchant houses provide a detailed description of a system of long-distance trade that reached from central Asia to the Black Sea region and the Aegean. The texts record common activities such as trade between Kanesh and the city state of Assur, and between Assyrian merchants and local people. The tablets tell us about the economy as well as the culture, language, religion, and private lives of individuals we can identify by name, occupation, and sometimes even personality. This book presents an in-depth account of this vibrant Bronze Age Anatolian society, revealing the daily lives of its inhabitants.