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Human color perception is widely understood to be based on a neural coding system involving signals from three distinct classes of retinal photoreceptors. This retina processing model has long served as the mainstream scientific template for human color vision research and has also proven to be practically useful for designing display technologies, user-interfaces and medical diagnosis tools that enlist human color perception behaviors. Recent findings in the area of retina photopigment gene sequencing have made important updates to our understanding of the molecular basis and genetic inheritance of human color vision individual variations. This Element focuses on new knowledge about the linkages between color vision genetics and color perception variation, and the color perception consequences of inheriting alternative, non-normative, forms of genetic sequence variation.
Although much is known about the anatomy of adult primates, particularly chimpanzees, the same cannot be said for the anatomy of young primates, especially non-hominoid primates such as lemurs and marmosets. This is the first book dedicated to newborn skeletal and dental anatomy and how it varies across primate species, which is important for interpreting adult primate skeletal form, as well as for comprehending primate and human evolution. Structured according to anatomical regions, the book includes hundreds of detailed anatomical illustrations, a color atlas illustrating entire skeletons in representative taxa, and boxes at the end of each chapter providing further detail on key aspects covered in the main text. Whilst the book is primarily a guide to comparative anatomy, it also highlights the links between development and behavior. An indispensable resource for students and researchers in the fields of biological anthropology, anatomy, primatology, growth and development, dental biology, and veterinary medicine.
Modern anaesthesia and sedation consists of giving combinations of hypnotic and analgesic drugs to obtain the desired anaesthetic effect. Understanding how these drugs interact to create the anaesthetic state improves the precision of anaesthetic drug dosing and physiological stability of the patient.
The Carboniferous lungfish genus Sagenodus is reviewed from all available British specimens and described in detail for the first time. We identify two species exclusive to the UK: Sagenodusinaequalis, the type species, deriving from the late Carboniferous (=Pennsylvanian); and Sagenodus quinquecostatus derived from the early Carboniferous (=Mississippian). The genus is probably the most widespread of the known Carboniferous lungfish genera, but the British species have not been formally described since their discovery in the mid–late 19th Century. This work will provide data to help resolve existing questions about the position of Sagenodus in the phylogeny of Palaeozoic lungfishes, and provide a template for the recognition of isolated elements in museum collections and the finds from recent and future field work. The early Carboniferous species, S. quinquecostatus, shows a so far unique functional mechanism in which the lower tooth plates appear to rotate relative to the upper plates during jaw closure, implying a kinetic function at the symphysis or jaw joint.
After the Obama administration (2009–17) began authorizing musical exchanges with Cuba in 2009, Havana's music festivals became a primary site for transnational interactions and a public face for US-Cuban engagement while politicians worked towards normalization in secret. This article uses field research from the Havana International Jazz Festival, interviews with festival participants, and media coverage to explore Cuban music festivals as politically liminal spaces where musical and political life commingled to reflect the changing US-Cuban relationship. While diverse lineups attracted international tourists, artists faced bureaucratic challenges to legally traverse the Florida Straits and create music in the context of intercultural dialogue. Despite these difficulties, Havana as a festival space encouraged musicians to defy genre conventions, explore cultural commonalities, and negotiate social differences on stage during the Havana Jazz Plaza Festival. These transnational interactions culminated in Arturo O'Farrill's album Cuba: The Conversation Continues, which was recorded by US and Cuban musicians in Havana during the 2014 jazz festival and is characteristic of festival exchanges in its representation of a more harmonious international relationship.
Fluid flow through pipe-like conduits embedded in viscously deformable material occurs in many natural systems, including magma transport in the Earth’s mantle and channelized water flow beneath glaciers. Here, we present and explore a model of fluid flow in viscously deformable conduits that unifies previously published models of magmatic and glacial systems. Previous results for magmatic systems have demonstrated the existence of solitary wave solutions for the case of laminar flow in Newtonian conduits. Here we extend these models to allow turbulent fluid flow in power-law materials consistent with models used in subglacial hydrology. The generalized model encompasses both laminar and turbulent fluid flow, and the solid matrix may deform according to any power-law rheology. A quasilinear approximation of the governing equations is introduced, along with an initial condition that develops into a perfect step shock. This initial condition is used in numerical solution of the full nonlinear system where a dispersive wave train forms at shock time. We show that solitary wave solutions exist for all parameters. Rheology-dependent flattening of the wave peaks is investigated. In the limit of a perfectly plastic matrix, the solitary waves approach square waves asymptotically. Motivated by subglacial hydrology models, we study the effect of discharge-dependent melting on evolution of the solitary waves. We find that melting focuses at the wave peaks, causing the waves to grow and accelerate over time.
Christian preaching and the genre of the sermon developed both inside and outside the cloister, evolving as they circulated between secular and religious audiences. Whereas few monks (beyond the ones who became bishops) were ordained in the early centuries of Western monasticism, the difference between monks and secular clergy moved gradually to sharper definition in the eighth century, as more and more monks were being ordained. Debates intensified in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries over the duty and authorization for preaching by monks, particularly outside the monastery. While Jerome (347–420) had asserted that the duty of monks is “not to teach, but to weep,” Rupert of Deutz (c. 1075–1129), addressing his extensive biblical commentaries to prelates and monk-priests, argued forcefully that preaching stood first among their responsibilities. For Rupert, the impetus toward renewal and reform in the twelfth century rested upon correct and authorized preaching. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), alarmed over unauthorized preaching of monks and lay persons, stated that “it is not expedient for a monk to preach in public, nor is it seemly for a novice, nor proper for anyone unless he is expressly sent.” The temptation to preach publicly is thus a fox, evil disguised as good. Nonetheless, Gratian’s (d. 1144/5) Decretum recognized that “monks chosen by the people, consecrated by the bishop with the consent of the abbot, have the right to the legitimate exercise of their power.” Within traditional communities that followed the RB, and Cistercian and Carthusian monasteries, abbots and designated representatives preached to their monastic congregations. Female superiors, such as Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179), addressed their religious communities, presumably with permission of the abbot or superior. The statutes of the double monastery at Admont explain that a sister could preach to her community when the abbot or his representative could not be present. Abbots, some monks, and Hildegard herself preached outside their monasteries as well.
Significant advances in prenatal imaging have allowed us to diagnose tumors in utero more accurately. These prenatal diagnostic capabilities have significantly increased the benefits for parents, the fetal patient, and the perinatal team who take care of these delicate patients. For the parents of a fetus diagnosed with a neoplastic tissue growth, it affords them more comprehensive prenatal counseling so that they are aware of what to expect for the duration of the pregnancy, and to help them prepare for the challenges the baby will face at the perinatal stage and beyond. For the fetus, prenatal diagnosis has enabled us to identify a subset of these babies who have historically faced a very poor prognosis and may benefit from an in utero intervention that could potentially salvage the pregnancy. Lastly, for the perinatal team prenatal diagnosis helps identify those high-risk patients who will endure significant perinatal challenges and thus empower them to ensure that the baby is delivered in the appropriate setting, at an optimal gestational age, and when indicated with advanced delivery techniques, such as the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure, to afford the best possible outcome for the most critical patients.
Like the northern periphery regions of other Arctic countries, the Russian North had a higher male–female sex ratio than the rest of the country. During the two decades following the breakup of the Soviet Union, the male sex ratio in the Russian North declined considerably, from 101 males per 100 females in 1989 to 92 in 2010. The regions and population of the Russian North were greatly impacted by the shift in northern development approaches from the centrally planned system of the Soviet Union to the market-oriented system of Russia. This paper examines the decline in the male population in the Russian North based on data from the 1989, 2002 and 2010 population censuses. The paper finds that only one quarter of the decline in the male sex ratio in the Russian North can be attributed to higher male outmigration and that three quarters are the result of significantly higher and widening gaps between females and males in life expectancy. The conclusion is that men in the Russian North coped with the social and economic upheavals by dying prematurely not by migrating. The leading causes of death for men were cardiovascular diseases and external causes such as murder, suicide and accidents.
Late Holocene sediment deposits in Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica, are hypothesized to be linked to intensive meltwater drainage during the retreat of the paleo-Pine Island Ice Stream after the Last Glacial Maximum. The uppermost sediment units show an abrupt transition from ice-proximal debris to a draped silt during the late Holocene, which is interpreted to coincide with rapid deglaciation. The small scale and fine sorting of the upper unit could be attributed to origins in subglacial meltwater; however the thickness and deposition rate for this unit imply punctuated- rather than continuous-deposition. This, combined with the deposit's location seaward of large, bedrock basins, has led to the interpretation of this unit as the result of subglacial lake outbursts in these basins. However, the fine-scale sorting of the silt unit is problematic for this energetic interpretation, which should mobilize and deposit a wider range of sediment sizes. To resolve this discrepancy, we present an alternative mechanism in which the silt was sorted by a distributed subglacial water system, stored in bedrock basins far inland of the grounding line, and subsequently eroded at higher flow speeds during retreat. We demonstrate that this mechanism is physically plausible given the subglacial conditions during the late Holocene. We hypothesize that similar silt units observed elsewhere in Antarctica downstream of bedrock basins could be the result of the same mechanism.
Accurate perception of visual contours is essential for seeing and differentiating objects in the environment. Both the ability to detect visual contours and the influence of perceptual context created by surrounding stimuli are diminished in people with schizophrenia (SCZ). The central aim of the present study was to better understand the biological underpinnings of impaired contour integration and weakened effects of perceptual context. Additionally, we sought to determine whether visual perceptual abnormalities reflect genetic factors in SCZ and are present in other severe mental disorders.
We examined behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs) collected during the perception of simple linear contours embedded in similar background stimuli in 27 patients with SCZ, 23 patients with bipolar disorder (BP), 23 first-degree relatives of SCZ, and 37 controls.
SCZ exhibited impaired visual contour detection while BP exhibited intermediate performance. The orientation of neighboring stimuli (i.e. flankers) relative to the contour modulated perception across all groups, but SCZ exhibited weakened suppression by the perceptual context created by flankers. Late visual (occipital P2) and cognitive (centroparietal P3) neural responses showed group differences and flanker orientation effects, unlike earlier ERPs (occipital P1 and N1). Moreover, behavioral effects of flanker context on contour perception were correlated with modulation in P2 & P3 amplitudes.
In addition to replicating and extending findings of abnormal contour integration and visual context modulation in SCZ, we provide novel evidence that the abnormal use of perceptual context is associated with higher-order sensory and cognitive processes.
The mission and value statements of healthcare organizations serve as the foundational philosophy that informs all aspects of the organization. The ultimate goal is seamless alignment of values to mission in a way that colors the overall life and culture of the organization. However, full alignment between healthcare organizational values and mission in a fashion that influences the daily life and culture of healthcare organizations does not always occur. Grounded in the belief that a lack of organizational alignment to explicit organizational mission and value statements often stems from the failure to develop processes that enable realization of the leadership’s good intentions, the authors propose an organizational ethics dashboard to empower leaders of healthcare organizations to assess the adequacy of systems in place to support alignment with the stated ethical mission.
The advancement and spread of technology have improved options for clinical assessment. Specifically, ambulatory assessment (AA) methods have improved the ability to assess constructs with a particular focus on intra-individual and dynamic time processes, which are highly relevant to the assessment of mood and behavior. This chapter reviews current technologies, including applications of online platforms and devices, often utilized to collect data in an AA framework, and discusses their applications within research and clinical settings (e.g., assessment of mood instability). AA has a number of benefits, including limited or no reliance on retrospective recall as well as the ability to assess context and construct of interest in the “real world,” and allows for the ability to gather rich information regarding mood, behavior, and psychophysiology as part of the clinical assessment process. Much of the clinical application of AA is in the early stages. A number of important considerations and recommendations, including data security, accessibility, and future directions, are also reviewed within the context of AA methods.
Integrating geophysical survey with the study of community settlement patterns can be challenging because of cultural and environmental factors including (1) site formation and house preservation, (2) the coordination of domestic tasks at extra-household scales, and (3) the survey environment of the study area. In this article, we present the results of a program of geophysical survey comprising magnetic susceptibility and magnetometry at Weeden Island (8Pi1)—a shell-bearing, wooded site with nearly pure sand soils on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Combining remote sensing techniques mitigated some of the challenges of surveying forested terrain while providing insight into community organization at a site with minimal preserved structural remains. Compared with previous traditional surveys of the area, the geophysical survey extended the recognized boundaries of occupational activity, provided additional definition to the spatial structure of deposits, and allowed us to identify specific domestic features. Excavations at each area of intensive occupation provided evidence about the organization of the domestic economy at the site and showed the potential of this approach to reveal significant patterns of community settlement.
Opponents of spanking rest their arguments on the implicit assumption that punishment can only be justified by its corrective or deterrent effects. But this is a questionable assumption. Punishment is fundamentally about retribution: it seeks to give a wrongdoer what he deserves. It is for this reason that corporal punishment is morally permissible, irrespective of whether it corrects or deters future misbehaviour.
Examines George H. W. Bush’s efforts to establish a new world order and reliance on traditional Cold War strategies and alliances. Assesses Bush Sr.’s successes (e.g. German reunification) and failures (in Yugoslavia and Iraq). Documents beginning of post-Cold War US wars of Muslim liberation, a pattern continued by the presdients that followed him.
Byron wrote numerous notes and letters in Italian to Teresa Guiccioli, yet, unlike his friend Percy Bysshe Shelley, he did not translate his own poetry into Italian, nor did he produce any independent work in Italian. At first sight, this may seem surprising, not least because of Byron’s intense interest in the Italian language and specifically Venetian, which, by his own account, he spoke with ease and vivacity (and, according to others, as if he were talking with a brogue or a Somersetshire accent). He was amusingly critical of those who lacked his linguistic competence, such as John Murray (his publisher), Henry Brougham (the lawyer) and William Sotheby (the translator). His correspondence from Italy is rich in Italian usages, some of which he did not bother to explain. His poetic ambitions were even more closely connected with the language. On April 6, 1819, he informed Murray: “I mean to write my best work in Italian – & it will take me nine years more thoroughly to master the language – & then if my fancy exists & I exist too – I will try what I can do really” (BLJ 6: 105). Unfortunately, Byron did not exist nine years later, but his commitment to an extended discipline is hard to ignore. For a variety of reasons, he sent his young daughter by Claire Clairmont to a convent, where, as Shelley’s report of his own visit indicates, she conversed in Italian. Over two years later, Byron instructed Lady Byron that their daughter Ada should learn Italian and proceeded to an extraordinary imagining: “[P]erhaps by the time that she and I may meet (if ever we meet) it will be nearly necessary to converse with me – for I write English now with more facility than I speak it – from hearing it but seldom.” He continued: “It is the reverse with my Italian which I can speak fluently – but write incorrectly – having never studied it & only acquired it by ear” (BLJ 8: 210).