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Transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy is increasingly used for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc mucoceles in maxillary sinus. This study aimed to report the outcomes after inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap for recurrent mucoceles.
The records of patients who had undergone transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap were reviewed.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap was performed in 21 and 49 patients, respectively. No complications were observed. A closing of the antrostomy was found in 9 (18.4 per cent) of the 49 patients who underwent antrostomy without a mucosal flap. No closings were observed in the 21 patients who underwent antrostomy with a mucosal flap. There was a significant difference in the rate of closing for surgery with and without the mucosal flap.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap is a safe method for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc maxillary mucoceles that effectively prevents recurrence.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.
A two dimensional MHD code is used to study the nonlinear evolution of the Parker instability in isolated horizontal magnetic flux imbedded in (or below) the solar photosphere. It is found that the magnetic loop expands self-similarly in the nonlinear stage. Numerical results explain many features observed in emerging flux regions.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
A rocket experiment was carried out to search for the extra-galactic background light at 1–5 μm. After subtracting the foreground radiation, there still remains an appreciable amount of isotropic diffuse radiation with a complex spectral feature which is possibly attributed to extragalactic origin.
We propose a mechanism of amplification of magnetic fields and plasma heating in clusters of galaxies. Recent observations indicate the existence of ~ μG magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies (e.g., Kronberg 1994). There should be some mechanism which locally amplify magnetic fields. In clusters of galaxies, individual motions of galaxies may create locally strong field region by stretching and tangling the magnetic fields threading the galaxies. Magnetic reconnection taking place in the tangled magnetic fields may convert the kinetic energy of the galaxy motion into the inter-galactic plasma heating (Makishima 1996).
We present the results of 2.5-dimensional MHD simulations for jet formation from accretion disks in a situation such that not only ejection but also accretion of disk plasma are also included self-consistently. Although the jets in nonsteady MHD simulations (e.g., Uchida & Shibata 1985, Shibata & Uchida 1986, Matsumoto et al. 1996) have often been referred to as transient phenomena resulting from a special choice of initial conditions, we found that the characteristics of the nonsteady jets are very similar to those of steady jets: (1) The ejection point of the jet, which corresponds to slow magnetosonic point in steady MHD jet theory, is determined by the effective potential which results from the gravitational force and the centrifugal force along a field line (Blandford & Payne 1982). (2) The dependence of the velocity (vz) and mass outflow rate (Ṁω) on the initial magnetic field strength is about Ṁω ∝ B0 and vz ∝ (Ω2FB20/Ṁω)1/3, where B0 is an initial poloidal magnetic field strength, and ΩF is an ‘angular velocity of the field line’ which is nearly the same as the Keplerian angular velocity where the jet is ejected. These are consistent with those of 1D steady solution (Kudoh & Shibata 1997), although the explanation is a little complicated in the 2.5D case because of an avalanche-like accretion. We also confirm that the velocity of the jet is of order of the Keplerian velocity of the disk for a wide range of parameters. We conclude that the ejection mechanism of nonsteady jets found in the 2.5-dimensional simulations are understood with a previous theory which is studied on the assumption of steady state even when nonsteady avalanche-like accretions occur along the surface of disks.
We present the results of axisymmetric, two-dimentional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of weakly ionized gas torus threaded by large scale vertical magnetic fields. The gas torus corresponds to the 100pc scale circumnuclear torus observed by HST in nearby AGNs (e.g. NGC4261) or 1010M⊙ circumnuclear gas found by CO observations in luminous IR galaxies and quasars (e.g. Scoville et al. 1991). The initial state of simulation is a constant angular momentum polytropic torus threaded by uniform vertical magnetic fields. The torus is assumed to be rotating in a static, spherical hot halo. The model parameters are Eth = vs02/(γvk02) = 5 ×10−3 and Eth = vA02/vK02 = 6.6×10−6 where γ is the adiabatic index and vs0 and va0 are the sound speed and the Alfvén speed at r = r0 respectively.
We present a scenario for the origin of the hot plasma in our Galaxy, as a model of a strong X-ray emission (LX(2 – 10keV) ~ 1038 erg s−1), called Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), which has been observed near the Galactic plane. GRXE is thermal emission from hot component (~ 7 keV) and cool component (~ 0.8 keV). Observations suggest that the hot component is diffuse, and is not escaping away freely. Both what heats the hot component and what confines it in the Galactic ridge are still remained puzzling, while the cool component is believed to be made by supernovae. We propose a new scenario: the hot component of GRXE plasma is heated by magnetic reconnection, and confined in the helical magnetic field produced by magnetic reconnection or in the current sheet and magnetic field. We solved also the 2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations numerically to study how the magnetic reconnection creates hot plasmas and magnetic islands (helical tubes), and how the magnetic islands confine the hot plasmas in Galaxy. We conclude that the magnetic reconnection is able to heat up the cool component to hot component of GRXE plasma if the magnetic field is localized into intense flux tube with Blocal ~ 30 μG (the volume filling factor of f ~ 0.1).
Black hole candidates sometimes show a transition between the high (or soft) state and the low (or hard) state. In the low state, low frequency time variations are much larger than the high state. A possible mechanism of the large-amplitude, sporadic time variabilities in the low-state is the magnetic energy release in low-β (β = Pgas/Pmag < 1) disks (Mineshige, Kusunose & Matsumoto 1995). It had been thought that low-β disks cannot exist because buoyant escape of magnetic flux due to the Parker instability may set the lower limit for β inside the disk. Shibata, Tajima & Matsumoto (1990), however, pointed out that in accretion disks, once a low-β disk is formed, it can stay in low-β state partly because the growth rate of the Parker instability decreases when β < 1. They suggested that magnetic accretion disks fall into two types; high-β disks and low-β disks.
We performed 2.5-dimensional, nonsteady MHD numerical simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of magnetically driven outflows from accretion disks, including the accretion process itself, consistently. As an initial condition, we used a paraboloidal magnetic field line that is produced by electric current on the equatorial plane. We found that the outflow ejected from the accretion disk is collimated by the pinch effect of the toroidal component of the magnetic field that is produced by the rotation of the disk.
We present the characteristics of far-infrared (FIR) brightness fluctuations at 90 μm and 170 μm in the Lockman Hole, which were surveyed with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and give constraints on the galaxy number counts down to 30 mJy at 90 μm and 50 mJy at 170 μm. The fluctuation power spectra of the FIR images are not dominated by IR cirrus, and are instead most likely due to star-forming galaxies. This analysis indicates the existence of strong evolution in the counts. Especially at 90 μm, the source density is much larger than that expected from the currently available galaxy count models. The galaxies responsible for the fluctuations also significantly contribute to the cosmic infrared background radiation recently derived from an analysis of the COBE data.