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During the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition 1978–79, direct measurements of oscillations were carried out on 15 icebergs using a tiltmeter with an accuracy of ± 10 μrad. The amplitude of the oscillations varied from zero to about 103 μrad. The zero amplitude indicates that the berg was grounded and this was confirmed by echo-sounding from the ship. The observed oscillation periods ranged from 16 to 50 s. The observed oscillation periods and the calculated values based on the dimensions and mean density of the bergs were compared and the results are discussed. The flexure of the berg was measured with a theodolite and stakes. Relative movements exceeding the accuracy of the system (1 mm over 1 km distance) were not observed.
During the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition 1978–79, two experiments were carried out to measure flow around icebergs. Drogues were equipped with surface markers constructed to drift with the flow at various levels down to 260 m. They were tracked by a helicopter and a Motorola positioning system. As expected, the surface-layer (0 to 20 m) flow was wind-induced, but even at greater depths a relative motion of a few cm/s between the water and the iceberg was measured. Such measurements are important for the determination of drag on icebergs, and for melting and erosion processes.
During the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition 1978–79, temperature measurements of a number of icebergs and the surrounding surface water were made, using an airborne precision radiation thermometer. All icebergs were embedded in cold water-masses with temperatures generally below 0°C and thus the observed temperature anomalies were relatively small, ΔT ≈ 1 deg. Examples of the influence of icebergs on the sea surface temperature including a possible example of upwelling will be shown. The temperature of the snow-covered iceberg surface was almost constant with individual variations ΔT ≈ 0.2 deg. Local minima indicative of snow-covered crevasses were observed.
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