To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The quantitative assessment of glacier changes as well as improved modeling of climate-change impacts on glaciers requires digital vector outlines of individual glacier entities. Unfortunately, such a glacier inventory is still lacking in many remote but extensively glacierized gions such as the Canadian Arctic. Multispectral satellite data in combination with digital elevation models (DEMs) a particularly useful for creating detailed glacier inventory data including topographic information for each entity. In this study, we extracted glacier outlines and a DEM using two adjacent Terra ASTER scenes acquired in August 2000 for a remote region on southern Baffin Island, Canada. Additionally, Little Ice Age (LIA) extents we digitized from trimlines and moraines visible on the ASTER scenes, and Landsat MSS and TM scenes from the years 1975 and 1990 we used to assess changes in glacier length and area. Because automated delineation of glaciers is based on a band in the shortwave infrared, we have developed a new semi-automated glacier-mapping approach for the MSS sensor. Wrongly classified debris-coved glaciers, water bodies and attached snowfields we corrected manually for both ASTER and MSS. Glacier drainage divides we manually digitized by combining visual interptation with DEM information. In this first paper, we describe the applied methods for glacier mapping and the glaciological challenges encounted (e.g. data voids, snow cover, ice caps, tributaries), while the second paper ports the data analyses and the derived changes.
Despite its large area covered by glaciers and ice caps, detailed glacier inventory data are not yet available for most parts of Baffin Island, Canada. Automated classification of satellite data could help to overcome the data gaps. Along-track stereo sensors allow the derivation of a digital elevation model (DEM) and glacier outlines from the same point in time, and are particularly useful for this task. While part I of this study describes the remote-sensing methods, in part II we present an analysis of the derived glacier inventory data for 662 glaciers and an application to glacier volume and volume-change calculations. Among other things, the analysis reveals a mean glacier elevation of 990 m, with a weak dependence on aspect and a close agreement of the arithmetic mean with the statistical mean elevation as derived from the DEM. A strong scatter of mean slope is observed for glaciers <1 km2, and the derived glacier thickness differs by a factor of two for glaciers of the same size. For the period from about 1920 to 2000 the relative area change is –12.5% (264 glaciers), with a strong dependence on glacier size. Mean mass loss as derived from volume changes is about –0.15 mw.e. a–1.
The objective of the DOPAS international project is to design a sealing-plug system for deep geological repository (DGR) use, to provide detailed plans for the design of such plugs, to test the characteristics of the materials to be used and the construction technology and to install four experimental in situ plugs. The Czech experimental pressure and sealing-plug (EPSP) experiment is being conducted in a rock environment consisting of granitoids at the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre. The concept of the experiment is based primarily on the use of materials and technology available in the Czech Republic and the principal aim is to demonstrate the technical viability and functioning of a pressure-resistant plug located in a future DGR. The completion of the EPSP experiment will contribute towards both the demonstration of how sealing-plug systems behave under real underground conditions and the long-term safety of a future DGR in the Czech Republic.
La commission vient de perdre l’un de ses membres les plus actifs dans l’élaboration et la construction des instruments. Le Dr F. G. Pease est décédé le 7 février 1938, après une très courte maladie qui l’emporta en quelques jours.
Mme Ed. Chandon suggère que la commission étudie systématiquement, aux divers points de vues des observations astronomiques, l’œil, cet instrument auquel tous les autres aboutissent et aux imperfections duquel ils doivent remédier.
L’œil est un instrument multiple. Ses qualités photométriques et colorimétriques jouent un rôle fondamental dans les observations des étoiles variables. Comme instrument de coïncidences, l’astigmatisme qu’il peut présenter n’intervient pas de la même manière dans les observations des passages, dans les mesures des hauteurs, etc.
During the past four years the most important events in meteoric astronomy have been the good showers of the Leonids in 1930 and 1931. When these observations are added to the predictions based on computations of the perturbations, there is good reason to hope for an even better shower in 1932, perhaps rivalling that of 1866. As to the study of meteors in general, there has been an increasing revival of interest. Meteor Notes are now regular features of many scientific journals. Never before have so many people been working in this branch of science. A very brief outline of such activities follows.
The Commission formed a Sub-Commission on Zodiacal Light, presided over by Prof. Issei Yamamoto. The constitution of a sub-commission on the light of the night sky and kindred phenomena was proposed, but left in abeyance, pending the Stockholm Meeting. Dr Jean Dufay kindly consented to write, at the president’s request, a paper on the present state of the problem of the light of the night sky, which is printed with this Report.
The past few years have witnessed a great increase in the amount of work done on meteors and in the number of observers. At several observatories programmes of work have been undertaken in the hope of solving specific problems. Several countries now have flourishing meteor societies, or sections of larger astronomical societies, devoted to this field. To solve the problems that have arisen the help of other scientists, especially in physics, geology, and meteorology, has been enlisted to the mutual benefit of all. Historical research, particularly in Asia, has added much to our knowledge of meteor showers for the past thousand or more years.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for a new memantine analogue of a Platinum (Pt) (II) complex labelled LA-13, C12H24Cl2N2Pt, are reported [a = 8.324(1) Å, b = 27.838(2) Å, c = 7.113(1), β = 111.25(1), unit-cell volume V = 1536.26 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P21/n]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/n space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
An outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) started on Medvednica mountain near Zagreb in January 2012. In order to detect the aetiological agent of the disease in small rodents and to make the link with the human outbreak, rodents were trapped at four different altitudes. Using nested RT–PCR, Puumala virus (PUUV) RNA was detected in 41/53 (77·4%) bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) RNA was found in 6/61 (9·8%) yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis). Sequence analysis of a 341-nucleotide region of the PUUV S segment, obtained from all infected bank voles and five HFRS patients, showed 98·8–100% sequence similarity, indicating that the patients were probably exposed to PUUV on Medvednica mountain. A very large bank-vole population combined with an extremely high infection rate of PUUV was responsible for this unusual winter outbreak of HFRS in Croatia.
The classic image of Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe envisages them hunting large mammals in largely treeless landscapes. That is partly due to the nature of the surviving archaeological evidence, and the poor preservation of plant remains at such ancient sites. As this study illustrates, however, the potential of Upper Palaeolithic sites to yield macrofossil remains of plants gathered and processed by human groups has been underestimated. Large scale flotation of charred deposits from hearths such as that reported here at Dolní Vӗstonice II not only provides insight into the variety of flora that may have been locally available, but also suggests that some of it was being processed and consumed as food. The ability to exploit plant foods may have been a vital component in the successful colonisation of these cold European habitats.
A considerable expansion of biogas production in Germany, paralleled by a strong increase in maize acreage, has caused growing concern that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during crop substrate production might counteract the GHG emission saving potential. Based on a 2-year field trial, a GHG balance was conducted to evaluate the mitigation potential of regionally adapted cropping systems (continuous maize, maize-wheat-Italian ryegrass, perennial ryegrass ley), depending on nitrogen (N) level and N type. Considering the whole production chain, all cropping systems investigated contributed to the mitigation of GHG emissions (6·7–13·3 t CO2 eq/ha), with continuous maize revealing a carbon dioxide (CO2) saving potential of 55–61% compared with a fossil energy mix reference system. The current sustainability thresholds in terms of CO2 savings set by the EU Renewable Energy Directive could be met by all cropping systems (48–76%). Emissions from crop production had the largest impact on the mitigation effect (⩾50%) unless the biogas residue storage was not covered. The comparison of N fertilizer types showed less pronounced differences in GHG mitigation potential, whereas considerable site effects were observed.
The geological disposal of radioactive waste, based on a multi-barrier concept wherein the first barrier consists of the metal waste container and the final barrier the host rock, is widely considered the only viable solution to this issue. The bentonite-based seal around the canister forms one of the barriers. The unique swelling and sealing capabilities of bentonite play a major role in repository safety concepts in that they allow the bentonite barrier to withstand serious mechanical damage without its function being compromised.
This paper presents experimental research focusing on the dynamics and mechanics of the sealing of cracks and joints using bentonite-based materials. Physical models were used to simulate the contact point of bentonite-based sealants with cracks in the rock mass. The models examined the ability of the tested material to fill the crack thus preventing the creation of a preferential water pathway. The results show that in most cases total bentonite advance (for the same material) into fissures is, primarily, linearly dependent on fissure width. The absolute value of advance could be related to the overall swelling ability of the material characterized by its swell index or swelling pressure.
The crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, is one of the most serious threats to indigenous European crayfish species. The North American invasive spiny-cheek crayfish, Orconectes limosus, is an important source of this pathogen in central and western Europe. We evaluated potential changes in A. astaci spore release rate from infected individuals of this species by experiments investigating the pathogen transmission to susceptible noble crayfish, Astacus astacus. We filtered defined volumes of water regularly to quantify spore concentration, and sampled crayfish tissues at the end of the experiment. The filters and tissues were then tested for the presence of A. astaci DNA by species-specific quantitative PCR. Additionally, we tested the efficiency of horizontal transmission to apparently uninfected O. limosus. The experiments confirmed that A. astaci can be transmitted to susceptible crayfish during intermoult periods, and that the pathogen was more frequently detected in noble crayfish recipients than in American ones. The pathogen spore concentrations substantially varied in time, and significantly increased during moulting of infected hosts. Our study strengthens the evidence that although the likelihood of crayfish plague transmission by water transfer from localities with infected American crayfish might increase when these are moulting or dying, no time-periods can be proclaimed safe.