To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Commission on Stellar Spectra records great progress in its field of investigation. We have reached the stage where a concerted attack can be made on two problems of fundamental importance which consciously or unconsciously have been the principal aim of stellar spectroscopists. The first is the problem of the abundances of the chemical elements in their relation to the question of nuclear transformations and the origin of the elements. The other is the problem of the origin of the stars and of their subsequent evolution.
At the first meeting of the newly formed Commission on Spectrophotometry, at Paris in 1935, a thorough discussion, aided by several reports, took place on the principles of this branch of astrophysics. So it will be sufficient now to treat only such special points of theory and practice as have won interest by researches of the last few years.
During the past three years the measurement of stellar radial velocities has formed an important part of the spectroscopic programme of most observatories possessing large telescopes. As observations are carried to fainter and fainter stars and the number of observable objects increases rapidly, a natural development has been the selection of special groups and types of stars, the radial velocities of which will aid in the solution of certain specific problems. Illustrations are the studies of the O, B and A type stars made at the Dominion Astrophysical, the Lick, and the Simeis Observatories, of the members of the galactic clusters at the Lick Observatory, and of the fainter Cepheid variables and early-type stars with strong interstellar lines at the Mount Wilson Observatory.
Two-thirds of the members of the Commission have replied to the request of the chairman for an expression of their opinion. Most of them are in general well satisfied with the existing system of classification and nomenclature. Lindblad reports on successful work upon the determination of absolute magnitudes of faint stars, in many ways. Adams writes: “I might suggest that attention be called in the report to the fact that the ultra-violet spectra, even of stars like β Orionis, show large numbers of lines. As you probably remember, the spectrum of Sirius resembles, at first sight, the solar spectrum. If all observatories had the facilities for getting spectra in the far ultra-violet, this region would probably furnish the best criteria for spectral type.” Merrill suggests: “The nomenclature which, upon the basis of atomic transition, assigns the adjective ‘nebular’ to lines which may not occur in nebulae, and ‘ auroral ‘ to lines which may not occur in the aurora, is surely not an ideal one.
The analysis of the Sun by spectroscopic methods refers to an exceedingly thin layer, just above the photosphere, which has a thickness of only a few hundreds of kilometers. The deeper layers are inaccessible to our investigations, because there the matter becomes too opaque. The higher layers of the chromosphere and the corona again are less well known, because they are too transparent, so that deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions may occur. So it is understandable that just the layer where the equilibrium is nearly established must be the only layer which can be fully investigated. Probably this is the best analysed sample of the universe. Whether the composition here found is really representative for the Sun as a whole depends on the importance of the convection, which tends to stir the gases into one homogeneous mixture.
The present report is the first for which this newly-formed Commission has been responsible. In view of this fact, and in view of the still exploratory nature of many investigations in spectrophotometry, as well as the need for the highest measure of individuality in the attack of the not simple problems involved, it would be premature to propose, simple though it might be to do so, any far reaching plans for co-operative schemes of investigation. These undoubtedly will play a part in the later work of the Commission, but what appears to be needed now is a closer definition of the aims of spectrophotometry, and at least a reference to the many branches of the subject where investigation is needed. The present report attempts to deal with these topics in three successive sections, concerned in turn with the unique property of spectrophotometric measures, the fields of application of spectrophotometry, and recent developments in a still incomplete and difficult technique.
The comparison of the State with an animate organism was of outstanding importance in the political theories of the Middle Ages. Despite all its various forms of appearance this comparison always served to define the place and function of each individual in particular, as well as in relation to a superior whole. John of Salisbury deserves the credit for having helped this organological view of the State to breakthrough in writing the Policraticus.
This paper consists of two parts which, at first sight, are quite detached from each other: the pulsating variables of spectral types B to F, and the close spectroscopic binaries of the types of β Lyrae, UX Monocerotis and U Cephei. I shall show that there exists a connexion between these groups which, though still rather nebulous (in both senses of this word), promises to yield interesting results.
Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.
Due to its proximity, the neutral hydrogen belonging to Cen A can be observed at high resolution with good sensitivity. This allows us to study the morphology and kinematics in detail, in order to understand the evolution of this radio-loud source (e.g. merger history, AGN activity). At the same time, it is important to compare results to other sources of the same class (i.e. early-type galaxies in general and radio galaxies in particular) to see how Cen A fits into the global picture of early-type/radio galaxy evolution. The amount of Hi, the morphology of a warped disk with Hi clouds surrounding the disk and the regular kinematics of the inner part of the Hi disk are not unusual for early-type galaxies. The growing evidence that mergers are not necessarily responsible for AGN activity fits with the observational result that the recent merger event in Cen A is not directly connected to the current phase of activity. Based on these results, we conclude that Cen A has typical neutral hydrogen properties for an early-type and radio galaxy and it can therefore — from the perspective of Hi — be seen as a typical example of its class.
Using longitudinal and prospective measures of psychotic experiences during adolescence, we assessed the risk of developing psychosis in three groups showing low, increasing and elevated psychotic experiences associated with bullying by peers and cannabis use in a UK sample of adolescents.
Data were collected by self-report from 1098 adolescents (mean age 13.6 years; 60.9% boys) at five separate time points, equally separated by 6 months, across a 24-month period. General growth mixture modelling identified three distinct trajectories of adolescents reporting psychotic experiences: elevated, increasing and low.
Controlling for cannabis use, bullying by peers significantly predicted change in psychotic experiences between Time 2 and Time 5 in adolescents belonging to the increasing group. No effect was found for the elevated or low groups. Controlling for bullying, an earlier age of cannabis use and cannabis use more than twice significantly predicted change in psychotic experiences in adolescents belonging to the increasing group. Cannabis use at any age was significantly associated with subsequent change in psychotic experiences in the low group. Reverse causal associations were examined and there was no evidence for psychotic experiences at Time 1 predicting a subsequent change in cannabis use between Times 2 and 5 in any trajectory group.
Bullying by peers and cannabis use are associated with adolescents' reports of increasing psychotic experiences over time. Further research into the longitudinal development of psychosis in adolescence and the associated risk factors would allow for early intervention programmes to be targeted more precisely.