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For the Love of Language: An Introduction to Linguistics is an engaging introduction to human language and the role of linguistics in understanding its fundamental design, acquisition and functions. Replete with case studies and examples from Australia, New Zealand and around the world, this text offers a thorough introduction to core topics, including the structure and meaning of words, the systems that organise language, strategies for learning about language, the evolution of language and the function of language as a complex social resource. The second edition includes extensive new content across the entire text, including the areas of orthography, syntax, corpus linguistics, language acquisition and multilingualism. Each topic is accompanied by a wide array of pedagogical resources designed to consolidate student understanding, including examples and exercises. Each chapter ends with a research project, providing readers with an opportunity to build on fundamental skills and engage more thoroughly with each topic.
Density measurements of eight silicate liquids containing substantial amounts of Fe2O3 have been made over a range of 250 °C. These have been combined with published density measurements on multicomponent silicate liquids to yield (by multiple regression) partial molar volumes of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O. The data on Fe2O3-liquids are neither precise nor abundant enough to show a compositional dependence of . In a liquid of constant composition and temperature, the pressure dependence of the oxygen fugacity is given by
which, if ΔV is independent of pressure, necessitates an increase in fO2 with increasing pressure of about 1 log10 unit for 10 kbars.
Combining an equation relating oxygen fugacity to composition, T, and Fe2O3 at 1 bar (Sack et al., 1980) with the results for partial molar volumes, the oxygen fugacity of any magma can be calculated as a function of P and T. If basic magmas have their Fe2O3/FeO set in the source regions, and ascend isochemically, then the calculated oxygen fugacities in the mantle increase as pressure increases and silica activity decreases. A P-T grid has been constructed to show the calculated oxygen fugacities in a source region which has equilibrated with some common lava types, based on their FeO and Fe2O3 contents.
Cosmic Strings are one-dimensional topological defects that may be formed in the early universe during a phase transition, and which may be the source of all inhomogeneities in our universe. Their mass per unit length, μ, gives us a dimensionless parameter, μ6 ≡ 106Gμ/c2, which must be of order unity for strings to seed galaxy formation. Results to date from the ongoing CfA redshift survey suggest that galaxies are distributed on two-dimensional surfaces, whose typical separation is about 50h50−1 Mpc. The loop distribution is unlikely to imprint such large-scale patterns in the galaxy positions so we have examined whether this structure could be caused by infinite strings. Because an infinite string typically moves at a substantial fraction of the speed of light, it will leave behind a very large accretion wake in the ambient medium. Gravitational instablity causes these wakes to continue to accrete matter long after the string has moved elsewhere. These wakes form around the two-dimensional surfaces swept out by the long strings.
While the strategy for the first applications of weak lensing has been to “go deep” it is equally interesting to use one's telescope time to instead “go wide”. The Sloan Survey (SDSS) provides a natural framework for a very wide area weak lensing survey.
It is well-nigh impossible to give, in a short report, an adequate idea of the enormous activity in Variable-Star Astronomy during the past three years. Without attempting to be complete I shall give a summary of the most important recent occurrences in this field of research.
Statistical data for eclipsing binaries were given by Gaposchkin (Veröff. Berlin-Bab. 9, Heft 5), for long-period variable stars by Ludendorff (Sitz.-ber. Ak. d. Wiss. Berlin, 1932), Thomas (Veröff. Berlin-Bab. 9, Heft 4) and Sterne and L. Campbell (Harvard Annals).
Some valuable catalogues have been issued: a Finding List for Observers of Eclipsing Variables by Dugan (Princeton Contr. No. 15), a Catalogue of Eclipsing Variables, together with a Program of Investigations, by Martinoff (Engelhardt Obs. Bull. No. 2), a Catalogue and Ephemeris of Short-period Cepheids by Zessewitsch (Len. Un. A. 0. Bull. No. 3).
Fourteen members of the committee have failed to respond to correspondence; nearly all of the others have expressed the definite opinion that non-responsive members should be dropped from committee membership when a new list is prepared a few correspondents indicating however, that the policy should be adopted for Commission 27 only if generally adopted for all commissions of the Union.
This Commission was organized at the Stockholm meeting of the Union in 1938, and now after ten years has the opportunity to make its first report. The rearrangement of the fields of the different Commissions at Copenhagen in 1946 gives Commission 34 some responsibility for the entire volume of space between the stars, if not between the galaxies. Since the presence of interstellar material in any region of space may be revealed by emission, reflection, scattering, or absorption of radiation, the study of this material falls under or overlaps the activities of half a dozen other Commissions of the Union. Because of this extent of the relations of the Commission we may consider again the directions in which international co-operation may function to advantage. As pointed out by Schlesinger when the Union was organized, such co-operation is valuable in matters of convention; in avoidance of duplication; and especially in investigations too large for one institution or even one country to undertake.
The Commission again subscribes to a number of the good resolutions it has made in the past, for example, to follow the almost universal practice of counting the observed times, either in decimals of a day or in hours and minutes, from Greenwich mean noon, even though one is convinced that the rest of the world should adopt U.T.; and to prepare a chart, identifying the variable and the comparison stars, to form a part of the discovery announcement of a variable which cannot be easily identified through a Durchmusterung number and which is bright enough to invite further observation.
A program to measure long-period brightness oscillations at the solar limb has been pursued at Sacramento Peak Observatory for several years. Past improvements in observing technique and data analysis are reviewed. The encouraging results aid in the verification of the reality and the origin of oscillatory signals. However, the main stumbling block to this and other observational programs is the length of observing sequences imposed by the day/night cycle. The South Pole has received considerable attention as a site where extended observations might be possible. Currently, the Sacramento Peak program is developing a South Pole telescope designed for the observing technique and data analysis proven in Sunspot. A review of pertinent South Pole site parameters is given here for other workers who may be considering South Pole observations. Observing sequences longer than 150 hr are possible, though rare. Data sets of this duration are very attractive for solar oscillation studies.
Vertically propagating traveling waves have been observed in the solar photosphere. These waves have a period of 278 ± 41 seconds and a vertical phase velocity of about 2 km s-1. It is noted that these waves also have approximately the same period as the well-studied five-minute-period acoustic mode, which is evanescent in the photosphere. The only consistent interpretation of the traveling waves implies that they are gravity waves. About half the time the gravity waves are outgoing, while the remainder of the time they are ingoing.
The data were collected by Stebbins et al. (1980) to study the vertical structure of the photosphere. They examined velocity pertubations at nine altitudes in the photosphere using a Doppler shift technique. The current work represents a reanalysis of that data which uncovered the five-minute-period traveling waves.
The mean velocity amplitude of disturbances at a given altitude, as registered in the observed Doppler shift, was found to be directly proportional to the mean velocity amplitude at the base of the photosphere. This was the expected relationship between the velocity amplitudes. It was not expected that the standard deviation of the velocity amplitude at a particular altitude would be independent of the velocity amplitude at the base of the photosphere. In addition, the phase difference between velocities at different altitudes is, unexpectedly, inversely proportional to the velocity amplitude at any altitude. These two traits of the data are consistent with a five-minute-period nonacoustic traveling wave being superimposed on the five-minute-period acoustic mode. This supposition is borne out by a detailed examination of the data in the complex plane of amplitude and phase and by a calculation of the power spectrum of the traveling waves as a function of their vertical wavenumber (see Hill et al., 1982).
With each newly learned language you acquire a new soul.
Research in the area of language acquisition is concerned with questions about how children develop skills in using language. This research is a great example of an area in which linguistics makes a contribution, interwoven with fields of research such as anthropology, cognitive science, education, neuroscience and psychology. It is concerned with the acquisition of both first and second languages by monolingual and bilingual speakers and by speakers showing both typical and atypical pathways of acquisition. Across these different populations, language acquisition research is concerned with how all aspects of language are acquired: from sound segments through word choice to increasingly complex grammatical structures, the ability to interpret meanings that are only implied, or to construct extended narratives in culturally recognised structures.
Findings from research on language acquisition can be applied in domains like education and in a range of disciplines concerned with early childhood development more broadly. Debates in this area also have connections with our understanding of the evolution of language since any account of language acquisition also has to map coherently onto our understandings of how language in the brain works more generally (see Chapter 16).
I’m not sure what syntax means. But it must be bad because it’s got ‘sin’ and ‘tax’ in it.
William Rogers (American humorist)
One of the key characteristics of human language that we identified in Chapter 1 was creativity – the ability of speakers to formulate infinite new expressions using the words and sentence patterns of the language. Syntax relates to the systems in place in language to support the productive creation of new sentences – this is done by combining words according to established rules to make new meanings. In linguistics the word ‘syntax’ roughly corresponds to the more everyday word grammar. Both refer to the systems of language that support the combination and recombination of words into new sentences. (We realise that ‘syntax’ and ‘grammar’ are perhaps dirty words for many people, but we hope to show you here, and elsewhere in this book, that this bad reputation is totally unjustified!)
It is useful to note that there are other, more general, meanings of grammar in the community. Some associate it with the ‘correct’ rules of using language. As we noted in Chapter 1, although prescriptive approaches to language need to be understood and addressed within linguistics, linguists are generally more interested in what people actually do in using language. Thus, grammar in the context of this book refers to our developing understanding of the structural relationships within language that allow words to be combined in meaningful ways. Some of these might be understood to be correct from a prescriptive view and some might not. This issue of language standards is addressed again in Chapter 15.
Language, eight-armed, problematic, demiurgic, infinitely entrailed, must be honoured. Its riddling, jokey, mischievous, metaphoric, flawed, lapsible, parapraxic life must not be repressed, but tolerated, pleasured, submitted to, enjoyed, and so revealed for what it is.
Galen Strawson, Quarto, March 1982
The challenge in studying language is that because it is all around us, all of the time, it can be difficult to get some distance from the subject. Many of us spend large portions of each day talking with about as much conscious attention as we give to our breathing. As a result, reflecting on language can be a bit like asking a fish to think about water. How do you get outside it far enough that you can see what’s there?
The concepts we introduced in Chapter 1 are part of a solution to this issue. They provide us with some basic tools for thinking and talking about language. This chapter sets out some of the research strategies that we can use as part of the process of answering questions about language. Of course, the types of tools and strategies you use will depend on the question you’re trying to answer. (It’s pretty hard to make an omelette with a hammer.) So in this chapter we’ll describe some approaches to research on language and the types of research questions that they can be used to explore.
In this chapter we turn our attention to the ‘intolerable wrestle with words and meanings’ that T. S. Elliot writes about – in other words, the topic of semantics. Within linguistics this refers to the scientific study of meaning, but be aware that the word is occasionally used very differently in ordinary language. When someone says ‘That’s just semantics’, it’s usually when they are trying to belittle another person’s argument. It means something like ‘that’s just nit-picking’, the suggestion being ‘Let’s move on and deal with something important’.
As we noted in Chapter 1, all languages have some vocabulary that is based on sound symbolism (think of expressive words, such as woof, clang and woosh). However, for the vast majority of words, the link between their form and their meaning is arbitrary. Even sound-symbolic words have an element of arbitrariness; dogs in English might go woof-woof or arf-arf but in Japanese the sound is rendered wan-wan and in German vuff-vuff or vau-vau, while in Mali they say guk-guk. In short, as we discussed in Chapter 1, words are types of signs. There is no natural and no necessary connection between their physical shape and what they refer to; it’s simply a matter of convention. So learning a language means learning these agreed-upon meanings of strings of sounds and we aren’t free to change these meanings; even new words enter a language with an agreed-upon meaning. However, over time these meanings can change – and sometimes spectacularly.