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Although mental health issues are the key health concern for young people, contributing 45% of the total burden of disease for those aged 10-24 years, young people have the poorest access to mental health care. Current service approaches are insufficient, poorly designed and not well supported. Transformational reform of mental health care is needed, based on principles of evidence-informed care, early intervention, and a focus on the developmental period of greatest need and capacity to benefit from investment: emerging adulthood. The most appropriate care models for this period place emphasis on offering care that is appropriate to early stages of illness, pre-emptive in nature, and with a strong preventive focus. This sits best with a clinical staging approach, which distinguishes earlier and milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity. This provides a clinically useful framework that is sensitive to risk/benefit considerations and facilitates the selection of earlier, safer interventions, and favours a preventive or pre-emptive treatment approach. In this chapter, rapidly emerging examples of modern, stigma-free cultures of care designed and operated with young people themselves are described. This includes headspace and technologically enhanced service delivery models. Future directions for youth services are also described.
For over a decade a transdiagnostic clinical staging framework for youth with anxiety, mood and psychotic disorders (linked with measurement of multidimensional outcomes), has been utilised in over 8,000 young people presenting to the enhanced primary (headspace) and secondary care clinics of the Brain and Mind Centre of the University of Sydney. This framework has been evaluated alongside a broad range of other clinical, neurobiological, neuropsychological, brain imaging, circadian, metabolic, longitudinal cohort and controlled intervention studies. This has led to specific tests of its concurrent, discriminant and predictive validity. These extensive data provide strong preliminary evidence that: i) varying stages of illness are associated with predicted differences in a range of independent and objectively measured neuropsychological and other biomarkers (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally); and, ii) that earlier stages of illness progress at variable rates to later and more severe or persistent disorders. Importantly, approximately 15-20% of those young people classed as stage 1b or ‘attenuated’ syndromes at presentation progress to more severe or persistent disorders. Consequently, this cohort should be the focus of active secondary prevention trials. In clinical practice, we are moving to combine the staging framework with likely pathophysiological paths (e.g. neurodevelopmental-psychotic, anxiety-depression, circadian-bipolar) to underpin enhanced treatment selection.
While observing A-level students at my PP2 school, I noticed that their responses to classical texts largely consisted of the identification of stylistic tropes. The students could identify a text's stylistic features but they struggled to articulate and develop their own personal reactions to the text. They had been well-trained in this sort of ‘feature-spotting’ and therefore their reading experience was narrowly mechanical rather than genuinely exploratory. Every passage they encountered was put through the same analytical process with the unsurprising result that every classical author ended up sounding much the same. This seemed to me to be fundamentally passive way of engaging with literature. I was struck by Muir's contention that ‘the pupil should not be a passive recipient in the study of literature’ (!974, p.515). Hence, I wanted to devise a teaching strategy that would enable my students to be more active in the formulation of a personal response to the text.
Jaswal & Akhtar provide several quotes ostensibly from people with autism but obtained via the discredited techniques of Facilitated Communication and the Rapid Prompting Method, and they do not acknowledge the use of these techniques. As a result, their argument is substantially less convincing than they assert, and the article lacks transparency.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
And why ‘heritage’ as opposed to ‘culture’? They are still alive and performing after all. (Les Roberts on The Who, 2014, 263)
Les Roberts's observations of The Who –a band with only its lead singer and guitarist/ songwriter alive of its founding members –raises an interesting question about meanings of heritage in popular music, and within popular culture more broadly. To engage the backroom and on-the-road machinery to tour, to perform the back catalogue (and newer works) nightly, is to insist on presence and meaning in contemporary popular music. As Roberts (2014, 263) points out, The Who must also contend with other imaginings; their closing of the 2012 Olympic Games in London fixed them as ‘heritage’, where the live and televisual audience were invited to consume both the live performance and their status as the ‘Best of British’ rock in other times.
In a very different context, Simon Leys's (2006) novella, The Death of Napoleon, asks similar questions about perceptions of heritage in contemporary eras. It is the late 1800s. Itching to escape British-imposed exile on St Helena, Napoleon boards a Portuguese seal-hunting ship, leaving a loyal former officer to act as his double as he once again seeks to rule France. Making it to Brussels, the former Emperor grabs the first opportunity he sees to enter France –a Waterloo history tour, with visits to ‘Napoleon's bedroom’, ‘the battlefield’ and ‘veterans’ providing commentary. With thoughts of a triumphant retake of Paris, plans go awry upon news that the double on St Helena has inconveniently died. The Emperor is immediately confronted with how to manage his present amid a population grieving for his past: ‘from now on, his destiny was posthumous’ (Leys 2006, 69).
The novella is a wonderful conceit that works in multiple ways: the officer performing the daily tribute performance of Napoleon on St Helena; the Emperor confronted with his failures as commodified heritage; and seeking in vain the forms of ‘Napoleon-ness’ which render him once again as authentic. Yet the novella also has something to say more broadly about nostalgia and time. The busy, portentous present is compared with the inaction of the past.
A tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) was introduced in South Africa in April 2018. Our objective was to document perceptions and attitudes among urban South Africans living in Soweto on factors that contribute to their SSB intake and on South Africa’s use of a tax to reduce SSB consumption.
We conducted six focus group discussions using a semi-structured guide.
The study was conducted in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 months before South Africa’s SSB tax was implemented.
Adults aged 18 years or above living in Soweto (n 57).
Participants reported frequent SSB consumption and attributed this to habit, addiction, advertising and wide accessibility of SSB. Most of the participants were not aware of the proposed SSB tax; when made aware of the tax, their responses included both beliefs that it would and would not result in reduced SSB intake. However, participants indicated cynicism with regard to the government’s stated motivation in introducing the tax for health rather than revenue reasons.
While an SSB tax is a policy tool that could be used with other strategies to reduce people’s high level of SSB consumption in Soweto, our findings suggest a need to complement the SSB tax with a multipronged behaviour change strategy. This strategy could include both environmental and individual levers to reduce SSB consumption and its associated risks.
The flora of Mediterranean ecosystems contains families with species having fully and under-developed embryos in their seeds. After-ripening for physiological dormancy release and smoke influence germination in many species. We investigated how after-ripening and embryo growth interact with smoke to influence the temporal dynamics of seedling emergence among fire ephemerals. Seeds were placed in the field and under standardized (50% relative humidity, 30°C) laboratory conditions to test the effects of summer conditions on physiological dormancy loss. Germination was tested with water or smoke compounds (smoke water, KAR1) at a simulated autumn/winter temperature (18/7°C). The timing and amount of seedling emergence with smoke was observed for seeds exposed to near-natural conditions. During summer, physiological dormancy was broken in all species, enabling germination at autumn/winter but not summer temperatures; no embryo growth occurred in seeds with under-developed embryos. At the start of the wet season, seedling emergence from seeds with fully developed embryos occurred earlier than from seeds with under-developed embryos. In a non-consistent manner among our study species, smoke and smoke compounds influenced the rate of embryo growth and amount of germination. Effects of smoke were noticeable in terms of number of emergents in the first emergence season. Among ecologically similar species, we have shown (1) that both thermal and embryo traits exclude germination in the summer, (2) how embryo size influences the timing of seedling emergence in autumn–winter, and (3) a reduced requirement for smoke in the second emergence season after a fire with a shift to reliance on seasonal cues for emergence.
In 1992 Peter Fitzpatrick published The Mythology of Modern Law, a work that exposed the constitutive relation between Europe’s racialized imperialism and its conception of modern law. In the three decades since, a renewed field of “law and development” has grown, this time in the name of “the rule of law.” This Article shows how the mythology of modern law endures in this field of rule-of-law development. To do this, Part I draws out the main threads from Mythology. These are then woven through the Article, beginning with the World Justice Project’s Rule of Law Index®, before turning to the United Nations’ rule-of-law assistance, and ending with the World Bank’s 2017 World Development Report. The analysis shows how the mythology of modern law, in its racialized imperial form, is integral to the work of international rule-of-law promotion. One consequence is the denial of “local” law by a rule of law that obtains its authority by purporting to be responsive to legal pluralism. But the Article also points to the mythological possibilities of decolonization, specifically the possibilities of a “mythological legal pluralism” that is attentive to the ways in which the world’s plurality of laws already rule.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remain significantly under-represented in higher education systems. There are significant disparities in university completion rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The poor-retention and high-attrition rates among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students come at significant financial and personal cost for the individual, families, community, universities and governments. Existing evidence in relation to attrition has identified complex and multifaceted reasons including ill health, family and community responsibilities, financial difficulties, lack of social support, academic disadvantage and issues surrounding personal well-being. The current study aimed to add to evidence of the academic, financial, social support and well-being factors affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander student's decision to continue or withdraw from their university studies. Contrary to expectation, students' decision to withdraw was not related to academic and social factors. It was found that students between 22 and 25 years old strongly agreed they were likely to withdraw from studies. There was a significant association between withdrawal and type of enrolment. This study provided important insights into the factors that contribute to a students' decision to withdraw from their university studies, with implications for future educational interventions.
More than three million children in the United States are currently enrolled in charter schools, with increasing enrollments despite strong evidence of academic gains. This historical analysis moves beyond a focus on academic outcomes and traces the success of the charter school movement, in part, to the foundational premise of restoring agency to educational stakeholders. State-mandated schooling was a counterintuitive feature of American policy that chafed against the founding ideals of the Republic and gradually engendered resentment among mostly white conservatives. Concurrently, in the aftermath of Brown, factions of African American policymakers began to look for equitable educational alternatives. The unlikely alliance of these two antithetical constituencies resulted in the creation of a unique—albeit fragile—coalition and the passing of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program and paved the way for the nation’s inaugural charter school policy passed in Minnesota in 1991.
With more than 30 million people moving to North America during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1913), governments feared that Europe was losing its most talented workers. Using new data from Ireland in the early twentieth century, I provide evidence to the contrary, showing that the sons of farmers and illiterate men were more likely to emigrate than their literate and skilled counterparts. Emigration rates were highest in poorer farming communities with stronger migrant networks. I constructed these data using new name-based techniques to follow people over time and to measure chain migration from origin communities to the United States.
denotes the integral part of real
. The above summations were recently considered by Bordellès et al. [‘On a sum involving the Euler function’, Preprint, 2018, arXiv:1808.00188] and Wu [‘On a sum involving the Euler totient function’, Preprint, 2018, hal-01884018].
The effect of kiwi fruit at two dietary levels on the adaptation of intestinal fermentation over time in the growing pig was studied. A semi-synthetic fibre-free diet and two semi-synthetic diets containing kiwi fruit as a model fibre source (133 or 266 g/kg (DM basis); 28 or 48 g fibre/kg) were formulated and the diets contained titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. A total of fourteen ileal cannulated pigs (41 kg body weight) were fed the fibre-free diet for 7 d followed by either the low or high kiwi fruit-containing diets (n 7/diet) for a further 44 d. Ileal digesta and faeces were collected at five times throughout the study. Ileal digesta were fermented (in vitro) with a standard pooled human faecal inoculum, while fresh pig faeces were used as inocula to ferment in vitro a standard purified fibre. Observations were normalised for diet DM intake using the marker. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene copy number of ileal and total faecal bacteria were high for the high-kiwi fruit level diet (P<0·05). The ileal bacteria tended to decrease over time (P<0·1), while the faecal bacteria increased (P<0·05), at the same rate for both diets. The amounts of crude protein and insoluble dietary fibre entering the hindgut changed over time similarly for both diets, whereas for starch it changed only for the low kiwi fruit-containing diet (P<0·05). Changes over time were also observed for the predicted hindgut valeric acid production and butyric acid absorption (P<0·05). In conclusion, adaptational changes over time of some characteristics of intestinal fermentation depended on the dietary level of kiwi fruit.