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National identities are often conceived of as factors that lend structure and stability to citizens’ political opinions on issues such as immigration. While citizens who define national membership in ethno-cultural terms are less likely to support immigration, those with a civic conception are more likely to do so. The authors propose that defining national identity along both ethno-cultural and civic lines may give rise to conflicting considerations, leading people to experience ambivalence, implying that national identities may serve less as a stabilizing force than suggested by previous research. Findings from heterogeneous choice models and a unique survey experiment show that German citizens with mixed conceptions of national identity had more variable and more malleable opinions than individuals with ideal-type conceptions during the 2015/2016 European refugee crisis. The findings point to an identity-based source of ambivalence and extend current understandings of how people form attitudes towards immigration.
Oxygen was introduced into a single crystal of titanium in successive stages. The intensities of the h00 and 00l reflections were measured with a single-crystal diffractometer. The observed variation of the intensities with oxygen concentration was attributed to three factors: (1) the additional scattering from the oxygen atoms, (2) a change in the Debye-Waller factor, and (3) an exponential factor originating from the distortion around the oxygen atom. The theory of X-ray scattering from crystals containing centers of distortion was applied to the hexagonal titanium containing interstitial oxygen atoms. Using the variation of the lattice constant with oxygen concentration, it was possible to predict the intensity reduction due to lattice strains. It was concluded that it would have been possible to obtain an estimate of the defect concentration from the X-ray measurements of lattice expansion and intensity reduction.