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Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
Our historical account in this chapter will be of long-term processes in which civilisation, including its variant components as well as its spatial spread of variation, was transformed. It will be a history of re-compositions and their absorption of new elements.
Civilisation has for many decades been a rejected concept in anthropology and sociology because of its past evolutionary and Eurocentric misuses. Our reason for reintroducing it is that it will enable us to go beyond the narrow confines of time and space to which culture and society have been restricted and to raise our eyes to see the relations of societies and cultures to each other on a larger scale. In this chapter we will show how we can do this without the assumption of unilinear evolution and without Euro- or any other ethnocentrism.
The time has come for ‘civilisation’ to be reintroduced. Historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists have overcome the critical suspicion mounted by so-called post-modernists and post-structuralists of any long narrative or of empirically based theory. Combinations of the three disciplines, by both students and researchers, have survived and they now flourish. In any case, from the 1970s of early post-ism, anthropology has increasingly included history, the study of documents and archaeological remains that predate but inform the present studied by lived experience, observation, conversation, and interview.
For over forty years, Jack Goody has maintained that for all the major societies of Eurasia, modern urban cultures represented a continuous development that started in the Bronze Age (Goody 2006: 55). The ‘big break’ in social development for Goody was from ‘Neolithic Society’, whose knowledge he characterised in terms described by Lévi-Strauss as the ‘science of the concrete’ (Lévi-Strauss 1969: 15).
The characteristics of civilisation that we wish to highlight are that it is a self-fashioning and encompassing ideology of products, practices, and images. It is a transmission of ideals through mundane habits. Further, claims to the same civilisation are made from several centres, potentially critical of the established centres. Civilisation is not only a spread of styles, norms of conduct, distinction, and knowledges.
In this chapter we take up again the relation between civilisation and hierarchy. As presented in chapters 1 and 2, we have followed Dumont’s central argument that hierarchy as a ritual ideal of purity over pollution encompasses secular power. For Dumont, hierarchy is inseparable from holism, the valorisation of the social whole.
We have offered a conception of civilisation that describes all human cultures but sets them in larger contexts of similarity, differentiation, and variation and in longer durations of persistence and transformation. Our minimal definition of civilisation is ‘self-fashioning by restraint and with reference to an encompassing sense of the world that also defines what is human and what humans do, what is perceptible by living human senses and what is not, distinguishing insides from outsides’.
The governments both of mainland China and of Taiwan have turned their ‘civilisation’ into a national heritage or tradition. But civilisation was transmitted before without its being a ‘tradition’ (chuantong) or a material and non-material heritage in the UNESCO-speak that prevails. Sinocentric views of civilisation now speak a language of national pride and exaggerate longevity and continuity, just as do Eurocentric and other nationalist views of their civilisations.
Civilisation is a debated concept and is often associated with the prerogatives of the 'West', colonial histories, and even emerging global politics. In this book, Stephen Feuchtwang and Michael Rowlands use the examples of Africa and China to provide a new conceptualisation that challenges traditional notions of 'civilisation'. They explain how to understand duration and continuity as long-term processes of transformation. Civilisations are best seen as practices of feeding and hospitality, of rituals and manners of living and dying, of entering the portals into the invisible world that surrounds and encompasses us, of healing and the knowledge of the encompassing universe and its powers, including its ghosts and demons. Civilisations furnish the moral ideals for people to live by and aspire to and they are changed more by the actions of disappointed grassroots and their little traditions than by their ruling authorities. Just as they revitalise and change their civilisations, this book revitalises and changes the way to think about civilisations in the humanities, the historical and the social sciences.
In the course of work, on the CaO-Nb205-Si02 System, a series of compositions on the Ca0-Nb2-05 binary join has been studied. There are indications of the existence of three calcium niobates. These compounds have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and optical data. Single crystal studies have given information concerning the crystallography of these materials.
The present study aimed to examine the key influences on infant and child feeding practices among a Marshallese community at each social ecological level. It is the first study to examine the key influences on infant and child feeding practices with Marshallese immigrant women in the USA and helps fill a gap in the previous literature that has included other immigrant women.
Community-based participatory research design with twenty-seven participants taking part in four qualitative focus groups.
The study took place within the Marshallese community in Arkansas, USA.
Participants included Marshallese women with children aged 1–3 years and/or caregivers. Caregivers were defined as someone other than the parent who cares for children. Caregivers were often older women in the Marshallese community.
There were five primary themes within multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model. At the intrapersonal level, mothers’ and caregivers’ autonomy emerged. At the interpersonal level, child-led and familial influences emerged. At the organizational level, health-care provider influences emerged; and at the policy level, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children emerged as the most salient influence.
Marshallese immigrant women’s infant and child feeding practices are influenced at intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational and policy levels. Understanding these multidimensional influences is necessary to inform the creation of culturally tailored interventions to reduce health disparities within the Marshallese community.