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Objectives: This study examined the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sentence and word comprehension in healthy adults. Methods: Healthy adult participants, aged between 19 and 30 years, received either a-tDCS over the left inferior frontal gyrus (n=18) or sham stimulation (n=18). Participants completed sentence comprehension and word comprehension tasks before and during stimulation. Accuracy and reaction times (RTs) were recorded as participants completed both tasks. Results: a-tDCS was found to significantly decrease RT on the sentence comprehension task compared to baseline. There was no change in RT following sham stimulation. a-tDCS was not found to have a significant effect on accuracy. Also, a-tDCS did not affect accuracy or RTs on the word comprehension task. Conclusions: The study provides evidence that non-invasive anodal electrical stimulation can modulate sentence comprehension in healthy adults, at least compared to their baseline performance. (JINS, 2019, 25, 331–335)
Although school-based programmes for the identification of children and young people (CYP) with mental health difficulties (MHD) have the potential to improve short- and long-term outcomes across a range of mental disorders, the evidence-base on the effectiveness of these programmes is underdeveloped. In this systematic review, we sought to identify and synthesise evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school-based methods to identify students experiencing MHD, as measured by accurate identification, referral rates, and service uptake.
Electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, British Education Index and ASSIA were searched. Comparative studies were included if they assessed the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify students in formal education aged 3–18 years with MHD, presenting symptoms of mental ill health, or exposed to psychosocial risks that increase the likelihood of developing a MHD.
We identified 27 studies describing 44 unique identification programmes. Only one study was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies evaluated the utility of universal screening programmes; where comparison of identification rates was made, the comparator test varied across studies. The heterogeneity of studies, the absence of randomised studies and poor outcome reporting make for a weak evidence-base that only generate tentative conclusions about the effectiveness of school-based identification programmes.
Well-designed pragmatic trials that include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness and detailed process evaluations are necessary to establish the accuracy of different identification models, as well as their effectiveness in connecting students to appropriate support in real-world settings.
Deformational structures at the surge-type glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard, are displayed at the glacier surface and on a grounded cliff section at the terminus. A 300 m × 65 m grid of 200 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles has been collected adjacent to the cliff section in order to identify englacial structure.Two sub-horizontal reflectors have been imaged; the upper is interpreted as the glacier bed, and represents a transition between glacier ice and frozen subglacial sediments; while the lower is interpreted as a transition between frozen and unfrozen subglacial sediment. Dipping reflectors, corresponding to sediment-filled features on the cliff and glacier surface, do not cross the glacier bed. A small number of reflectors, interpreted as thrust faults, are visible below the bed reflector. A model is developed for structural development, which suggests that ice built up in a reservoir zone during quiescence. During the surge, ice propagated rapidly from this reservoir, creating a zone of compression which resulted in thrusting. Subsequently an extensional flow regime resulted in extensive fracture of the ice. We suggest dilated sediment was evacuated into these extensional crevasses from the glacier bed, accelerating surge termination.
We conducted seismic refraction surveys in the upper ablation area of Storglaciären, a small valley glacier located in Swedish Lapland. We estimated seismic-wave attenuation using the spectral-ratio method on the energy travelling in the uppermost ice with an average temperature of approximately −1 °C. Attenuation values were derived between 100 and 300 Hz using the P-wave quality factor, QP, the inverse of the internal friction. By assuming constant attenuation along the seismic line we obtained mean QP = 6 ± 1. We also observed that QP varies from 8 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 from the near-offset to the far-offset region of the line, respectively. Since the wave propagates deeper at far offsets, this variation is interpreted by considering the temperature profile of the study area; far-offset arrivals sampled warmer and thus more-attenuative ice. Our estimates are considerably lower than those reported for field studies in polar ice (∼500–1700 at −28°C and 50–160 at −10°C) and, hence, are supportive of laboratory experiments that show attenuation increases with rising ice temperature. Our results provide new in situ estimates of QP for glacier ice and demonstrate a valuable method for future investigations in both alpine and polar ice.
In studies of extragalactic radio sources with multiple compact components the determination of which components, if any, are stationary and which moving is of importance. In order to learn about the radio properties of the individual components it is also relevant to be able to register maps made at several wavelengths. Both tasks are usually not possible with VLBI because of the irrecoverable corruption of the fringe phase introduced by the propagation medium and the instrumentation. However, when two or more compact radio sources are separated by only a small angle from each other difference techniques can be used to help tackle both questions.
A series of VLBI observations of the gravitational lens system 0957+561 at λ13 cm has yielded the positions of the A and B images, the relative magnification of their largest discernible radio structures, and the time variability of their smallest discernible radio structures. These observations have also allowed upper limits to be placed on the flux density of an expected third image. The positions and relative magnification of the A and B images provide new information with which to constrain models of the lens that forms the images. The detection of variations in the flux densities of the cores of A and B suggests that observations at shorter wavelengths may reveal superluminal motion, which may in turn provide a means to measure the relative time delay.
VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz of SN1987A on 28 February 1987 yielded no fringes, implying, for an optically thin shell, a lower bound on the (outer) diameter of 1.9 mas. From the comparison of the VLBI and optical results, we infer that the radiosphere of SN1987A was either about equal to, or larger than, the photosphere of the supernova five days after the explosion.
We show that geophysical methods offer an effective means of quantifying snow thickness and density. Opportunistic (efficient but non-optimized) seismic refraction and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were performed on Storglaciären, Sweden, co-located with a snow pit that shows the snowpack to be 1.73 m thick, with density increasing from ∼120 to ∼500 kg m–3 (with a +50 kg m–3 anomaly between 0.73 and 0.83 m depth). Depths estimated for two detectable GPR reflectors, 0.76 ±0.02 and 1.71 ± 0.03 m, correlate extremely well with ground-truth observations. Refraction seismic predicts an interface at 1.90 ± 0.31 m depth, with a refraction velocity (3730 ± 190 ms–1) indicative of underlying glacier ice. For density estimates, several standard velocity-density relationships are trialled. In the best case, GPR delivers an excellent density estimate for the upper snow layer (observed = 321 ± 74 kg m–3, estimated = 319 ± 10 kgm–3) but overestimates the density of the lower layer by 20%. Refraction seismic delivers a bulk density of 404 ±22 kgm–3 compared with a ground-truth average of 356 ± 22 kg m–3. We suggest that geophysical surveys are an effective complement to mass-balance measurements (particularly for controlling estimates of snow thickness between pits) but should always be validated against ground-truth observations.
We have investigated the speed of compressional waves in a polythermal glacier by, first, predicting them from a simple three-phase (ice, air, water) model derived from a published ground-penetrating radar study, and then comparing them with field data from four orthogonally orientated walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) acquired in an 80 m deep borehole drilled in the ablation area of Storglaciären, northern Sweden. The model predicts that the P-wave speed increases gradually with depth from 3700ms–1 at the surface to 3760ms–1 at 80m depth, and this change is almost wholly caused by a reduction in air content from 3% at the surface to <0.5% at depth. Changes in P-wave speed due to water content variations are small (<10 ms–1); the model’s seismic cold–temperate transition surface (CTS) is characterized by a 0.3% decrease downwards in P-wave speed (about ten times smaller than the radar CTS). This lack of sensitivity, and the small contrast at the CTS, makes seismically derived water content estimation very challenging. Nevertheless, for down-going direct-wave first arrivals for zero- and near-offset VSP shots, we find that the model-predicted travel times and field observations agree to within 0.2 ms, i.e. less than the observational uncertainties.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: Student Run Simulation Team (SRST) is an extracurricular medical student group that provided peers with opportunities to learn and teach principles of acute care medicine in a simulated environment. Early exposure to simulation has been identified as a way for medical students to engage in self-directed education. SRST operated through a peer-led model. Senior medical students designed and delivered didactic sessions, simulation scenarios, and debriefed the scenarios to emphasise targeted objectives. Methods: Informal interviews conducted by the SRST as part of a needs analysis identified barriers to an effective transition from pre-clerkship to clerkship. Specifically, principles of team dynamics including effective communication and role clarification in emergency situations were identified as areas where students lacked confidence. The curriculum focused on leadership and an effective team approach to common acute presentations. SRST members acquired simulation skills under the guidance of a simulation team at the University of Calgary. In the inaugural year, 8 second year students developed and delivered the curriculum to 16 first year students. Quality improvement surveys and participant feedback contributed to ongoing program review and refinement. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: Didactic lectures and task-trainer based skills sessions were created to assist the medical students in developing a foundational approach to a patient presenting to the emergency department. Three distinct simulations of increasing complexity were designed for students to build on their skills. SRST members worked with simulation consultants during 4 custom designed training sessions to develop simulation skills (design and debriefing). The distinguishing aspect of SRST is an emphasis on the non-technical skills of teamwork, leadership, and communication, rather than knowledge acquisition alone. The structure also included a succession plan for continued peer-led education where the student participants will form the next year’s team and will receive similar simulation education. Conclusion: SRST is the first student-run simulation initiative to be established in a Canadian medical school. This near-peer team allowed for early practice of non-technical skills in emergency settings. SRST facilitated opportunities for simulation education for both the junior students as participants, and the senior medical students as educators. This is an ongoing initiative, with plans to continue program development in future years.
When the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court was being negotiated, there was much discussion about whether ‘treaty crimes’ should be included within the jurisdiction of the Court along with the ‘core crimes’ of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. Ultimately, only the ‘core crimes’ were included. In the context of that debate, ‘treaty crimes’ referred to serious drug crimes as contained in United Nations treaties on the subject, and the set of ‘terrorism’ offences contained in a number of multilateral treaties entered into from the 1970s onwards, beginning with hijacking and other offences against aircraft. The dozen or so terrorism treaties in question were negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations and its specialised agencies, notably the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the International Maritime Organisation. These terror crimes include assaults on internationally protected persons, the taking of hostages, unlawful dealings in nuclear materials, violence at airports serving international aviation, acts against the safety of maritime navigation and on fixed platforms on the continental shelf, attacks on United Nations and associated personnel, terrorist bombings, the financing of terrorism, and nuclear terrorism. Such crimes may yet find their way into the jurisdiction of the Court, since it was understood in Rome in 1998 that their inclusion would be considered ‘later’. The process for their possible inclusion is proceeding at a glacial pace and ‘later’ is nowhere near in sight.
I suggest in this chapter that the category of treaty crimes is in fact much broader than those that were on the table in Rome. It encompasses a multitude of infractions from the exotic to the mundane that have been regulated in bilateral and multilateral treaty practice over the last two hundred years. It is common these days to describe this area as ‘transnational criminal law’, as opposed to ‘international criminal law’ or ‘international criminal law stricto sensu’, the latter terms being commonly used to describe the Rome Statute crimes. The treaties that are the subject of this chapter are often labelled ‘suppression conventions’, a descriptor which emphasises their core feature. That core is a promise by the parties to make something criminal under their domestic law, to ‘suppress’ it.
Radio interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources have been made with antennas at the Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California during fourteen separate experiments distributed between September 1976 and May 1978. The components of the baseline vector and the coordinates of the sources were estimated from the data from each experiment separately. The root-weighted-mean-square scatter about the weighted mean (“repeatability”) of the estimates of the length of the 3900 km baseline was approximately 7 cm, and of the source coordinates, approximately or less, except for the declinations of low-declination sources. With the source coordinates all held fixed at the best available, a posteriori, values, and the analyses repeated for each experiment, the repeatability obtained for the estimate of baseline length was 4 cm. From analyses of the data from several experiments simultaneously, estimates were obtained of changes in the x component of pole position and in the Earth's rotation (UT1). Comparison with the corresponding results obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) discloses systematic differences. In particular, the trends in the radio interferometric determinations of the changes in pole position agree more closely with those from the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) and from the Doppler observations of satellites than with those from the BIH.