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The island of Bawean, Indonesia, is home to the endemic Bawean warty pig Sus verrucosus blouchi and Bawean deer Axis kuhlii. Despite their threatened status, no long-term monitoring programme is in place for either species. Using random encounter and occupancy modelling based on 4,516 camera-trap days in 2014 and 2015 we aimed to provide population estimates and ecological data, including habitat preferences, for these species. For the Bawean warty pig we estimate an overall population size of 234–467 mature individuals and demonstrate a negative correlation between probability of occupancy and distance from villages. This preference for human-modified habitat has implications for human–wildlife conflict and hunting pressure for this species. The population of the Bawean deer could not be estimated because of the low number of encounters, but we suggest that this indicates the population is considerably smaller than previously reported. As island endemics, the Bawean warty pig and Bawean deer are particularly vulnerable to threats, and appropriate measures for safeguarding the species need to be taken.
In 2017 Zagreb faced the largest outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) to date. We investigated to describe the extent of the outbreak and identify risk factors for infection. We compared laboratory-confirmed cases of Hantavirus infection in Zagreb residents with the onset of illness after 1 January 2017, with individually matched controls from the same household or neighbourhood. We calculated adjusted matched odds ratios (amOR) using conditional logistic regression. During 2017, 104 cases were reported: 11–81 years old (median 37) and 71% (73) male. Compared with 104 controls, cases were more likely to report visiting Mount Medvednica (amOR 60, 95% CI 6–597), visiting a forest (amOR 46, 95% CI 4.7–450) and observing rodents (amOR 20, 95% CI 2.6–159). Seventy per cent of cases (73/104) had visited Mount Medvednica prior to infection. Among participants who had visited Mount Medvednica, cases were more likely to have drunk water from a spring (amOR 22, 95% CI 1.9–265), observed rodents (amOR 17, 95% CI 2–144), picked flowers (amOR 15, 95% CI 1.2–182) or cycled (amOR 14, 95% CI 1.6–135). Our study indicated that recreational activity around Mount Medvednica was associated with HFRS. We recommend enhanced surveillance of the recreational areas during an outbreak.
A popular explanation for economic development is that ‘individualistic values’ provide a mind-set that is favorable to the creation of growth-promoting institutions. The present paper investigates the relationship between individualistic values and personal attitudes toward government intervention. We consider two key components of an individualistic culture to be particularly relevant for attitude formation: self-direction (‘social’ individualism) and self-determination (‘economic’ individualism). Results indicate that both are negatively associated with interventionist attitudes. Effects of self-direction are much weaker though, than self-determination. Moreover, the effects of self-direction are mitigated through higher trust in the state and lower confidence in companies, while that is not the case for self-determination values. We conclude that especially economic individualism supports attitudes conducive to the formation of formal market-friendly institutions.
Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear.
We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well as prospectively and genetically.
Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67306 individuals aged 20–100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication.
Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0.0–21.5). The genetic analyses suggested that telomere length was not causally associated with attendance at hospital for depression or with purchase of antidepressant medication.
Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses.
Periodicity and new properties of the frequency curve. Bruno Hanisch uses the method of autocorrelation introduced by W. Pollack in geophysics for the discovery of periods in the frequency series of sunspots from 1794 to 1925. Dividing the whole interval into three sections he finds an eleven- and an eight-year period common to the three sections, whereas other periods found in the three sections differ widely from each other. The new method gives for the length of the main period II-8 years for the interval 1880 to 1925. This result agrees strikingly with the revolution period of Jupiter (Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, 46, 1935).
The President referred to a proposal by Dr Royds, given in the Draft Report, and supported in a letter by Dr Nicholson; after a short deliberation, on which the President and several members (D’Azambuja, da Costa Lobo, Butler, Evershed, Rodés) expressed their views, it was unanimously decided that, in order not to break the existing records, the present scale 0-5 should be retained limiting the interpolation to a half unit.
La Commission vient de subir une lourde perte en la personne de George Ellery Hale, Directeur honoraire de l’Observatoire du Mont Wilson, décédé le 21 février 1938, à l’âge de 70 ans.
L’enregistrement des phénomènes chromosphériques qui sert de base aux relevés et statistiques publiés régulièrement par divers observatoires, a été poursuivi sans changements notables depuis le dernier congrès. Le tableau reproduit dans Trans. I.A.U. 5, 59, 1935 et dans lequel sont groupés les renseignements relatifs à ces travaux d’observation courante, est donc toujours valable.
Mr Royds writes: “The original scheme for daily character figures called for integers ranging from 0—5 to characterise the solar activity for bright and dark flocculi. Since then it has appeared to some observatories to be desirable, particularly as the spot cycle has approached its minimum, to quote character figures intermediate between whole integers. Many observatories have introduced 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, etc., in addition to whole integers, whilst others have also used 0.2, 0.7, 1.2, etc. It seems to me that sufficient experience has now been gained to decide how far this subdivision between whole integers is to be carried. Kodaikanal would be willing to revert to the original proposal of whole integers on the scale 0.5. If it is considered desirable to interpolate half integers, I suggest that whole integers on the scale 0-10 would be easier to print and to read.”
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
Au cours des trois années 1932,1933 et 1934, les relevés et statistiques habituels des flocculi, des protubérances et de l’épaisseur de la chromosphère, ont été poursuivis et publiés régulièrement. Ils se répartissent de la manière suivante:
Madagascar is one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world, underpinned by its high proportion of endemic species and high rates of deforestation of about 1500 km2 per year (Myers et al., 2000; Moat and Smith, 2007). Since 1997 until today, the number of described lemur taxa has risen from 50 to 107 species and subspecies (Schwitzer et al., 2013). In 2012, a new IUCN Red List assessment revealed that 94% of the then 103 described lemur taxa had been placed in one of the Threatened categories (Schwitzer et al., 2013). Apart from geographic distribution and population densities, thorough knowledge of the biology and ecology, such as habitat needs or life-history data, are crucial to design conservation measures (Schwab and Ganzhorn, 2004; Merker et al., 2005; Schwitzer et al., 2013). In particular, the behaviour and ecology of nocturnal lemur species are poorly studied (Chapter 19); up until the reassessment in 2012, 37 of the 40 lemur taxa assessed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List were nocturnal (Schwitzer et al., 2013).
One of these poorly studied species is the nocturnal northern giant mouse lemur Mirza zaza Kappeler & Roos, family Cheirogaleidae, which was distinguished from M. coquereli Grandidier as a unique species in 2005 (Kappeler et al., 2005). M. zaza is a nocturnal lemur of approximately 300 g that lives in the dry deciduous forests of northwestern Madagascar up to the transition zone to the Sambirano evergreen rainforest domain in the north (Kappeler et al., 2005; Markolf et al., 2008). The species is IUCN Red-Listed as Endangered (IUCN, 2014). The only population estimates so far yielded the highest encounter rates in degraded forests with a high number of mango trees (Mangifera indica, family Anacardiaceae), the fruits of which may be an important food source for M. zaza (Markolf et al., 2008; Mittermeier, pers. comm.). Western dry forest is one of the forest types declining the most quickly in Madagascar, with ongoing threats to remaining and already heavily fragmented forests where M. zaza occurs (Schwitzer and Lork, 2004; Schwitzer et al., 2007).