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This article introduces an approach to teaching ancient Mediterranean religions by using types of classification to compare ancient to modern groups. A brief narrative introduces pedagogy challenges around understanding the multi-various intersections of ancient group affiliations with other aspects of society. Different modes of classification and comparison are presented as a way to enable such understanding. Finally, worksheets meant for copy and classroom use are presented, explained, and detailed for their potential in Classics pedagogy at both the secondary and tertiary levels.
Despite the global significance of the Leach’s Storm-petrel Hydrobates leucorhous colony on Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, the estimate of 3.36 million breeding pairs reported for 1984 by Sklepkovych and Montevecchi stands as the single published population estimate for the world’s largest colony. This study increases knowledge of this population by analysing data from additional independent surveys conducted in 1984 and 1985, and by updating the population status with a survey conducted in 2013. Population estimates were derived by extrapolating occupied burrow densities to the estimated occupied area of four main habitat types (heath, forest, grass and fern), which in turn were based on proportions of habitats observed in plots (1984 and 1985) or by using a Geographic Information System approach (2013). Based on these surveys, the Leach’s Storm-petrel breeding population size on Baccalieu Island was estimated at 5.12 ± 0.73 (SE) and 4.60 ± 0.42 (SE) million pairs in 1984 and 1985 respectively, representing estimates 37–51% greater than the original 1984 survey. While discrepancies among these estimates were largely driven by the way occupied areas were estimated, our study confirms that Baccalieu Island hosts the largest Leach’s Storm-petrel colony in the world. Results from the 2013 survey estimate the current breeding Leach’s Storm-petrel population at 1.95 ± 0.14 (SE) million pairs, representing a 42% decline over 29 years (-1.4% per year), relative to the original published estimate of 3.36 ± 0.12 (SE) million pairs. The most prominent change has occurred in the density of storm-petrel burrows found in forest habitat which dropped by 70% despite forest remaining the second most abundant habitat available to nesting storm-petrels on Baccalieu Island. The cause of this decline remains unknown and is likely multi-faceted. Future research focusing on demographic studies is required to understand what is driving the population decline of this internationally important colony.
Socially silenced topics such as racism can be of important social significance. Yet this significance can drive a topic underground, making it resilient and resistant to exposure and difficult for fieldworkers to observe as a phenomenon. While numerous ethnographic studies have demonstrated the importance of studying silenced phenomena, we still know little about how to conduct ethnographic research in silenced environments. Based on our experiences conducting ethnographic research (including participant observation, interviews and focus groups), along with the published reflections of others, in this chapter we discuss the broader significance and purpose of race-related silences and the various manifestations of racialized social silence, and then propose strategies for addressing them. We focus specifically on government and institutional silence, interpersonal silence, and interview or focus group silence. In doing so we hope to provide ethnographers with a toolkit for unearthing the deeper meanings associated with social silences. Although we focus on race in the Americas, our discussion and suggestions are intended to inform researchers encountering various forms of social silence across different contexts.
Strategic management is a system of continual disequilibrium, with firms in a continual struggle for competitive advantage and relative fitness. Models that are dynamic in nature are required if we are to really understand the complex notion of sustainable competitive advantage. New tools are required to tackle challenges of how firms should compete in environments characterized by both exogeneous shocks and intense endogenous competition. Agent-based modelling of firms' strategies offers an alternative analytical approach, where individual firm or component parts of a firm are modelled, each with their own strategy. Where traditional models can assume homogeneity of actors, agent-based models simulate each firm individually. This allows experimentation of strategic moves, which is particularly important where reactions to strategic moves are non-trivial. This Element introduces agent-based models and their use within management, reviews the influential NK suite of models, and offers an agenda for the development of agent-based models in strategic management.
Prototypes are a common feature of many product design and development endeavours. An ever widening range of prototyping options are available to designers and engineers. May particular options be superior to others, or more appropriate for particular endeavours? This paper reviews current literature on the nature of what constitutes a prototype and the benefits they offer to the discipline. They principally facilitate communication, aid learning, help gain and provide feedback, inform decision making and generally provide superior design outcomes. In order to determine if any particular manner of prototype is preferable for achieving these benefits a comparative study of some of the contemporary prototyping methods is subsequently conducted: A 3D printed prototype (physical prototype), a CAD prototype (represented using a computer monitor), an augmented reality prototype (represented using a tablet device) and a virtual reality prototype (represented using a stereo projector and polarised glasses). The results indicate that while all provide benefits, overall the physical prototype performs best and the augmented reality prototype performs most poorly.
We show how to reconstruct a finite directed graph E from its Toeplitz algebra, its gauge action, and the canonical finite-dimensional abelian subalgebra generated by the vertex projections. We also show that if E has no sinks, then we can recover E from its Toeplitz algebra and the generalized gauge action that has, for each vertex, an independent copy of the circle acting on the generators corresponding to edges emanating from that vertex. We show by example that it is not possible to recover E from its Toeplitz algebra and gauge action alone.
Complex challenges may arise when patients present to emergency services with an advance decision to refuse life-saving treatment following suicidal behaviour.
To investigate the use of advance decisions to refuse treatment in the context of suicidal behaviour from the perspective of clinicians and people with lived experience of self-harm and/or psychiatric services.
Forty-one participants aged 18 or over from hospital services (emergency departments, liaison psychiatry and ambulance services) and groups of individuals with experience of psychiatric services and/or self-harm were recruited to six focus groups in a multisite study in England. Data were collected in 2016 using a structured topic guide and included a fictional vignette. They were analysed using thematic framework analysis.
Advance decisions to refuse treatment for suicidal behaviour were contentious across groups. Three main themes emerged from the data: (a) they may enhance patient autonomy and aid clarity in acute emergencies, but also create legal and ethical uncertainty over treatment following self-harm; (b) they are anxiety provoking for clinicians; and (c) in practice, there are challenges in validation (for example, validating the patient’s mental capacity at the time of writing), time constraints and significant legal/ethical complexities.
The potential for patients to refuse life-saving treatment following suicidal behaviour in a legal document was challenging and anxiety provoking for participants. Clinicians should act with caution given the potential for recovery and fluctuations in suicidal ideation. Currently, advance decisions to refuse treatment have questionable use in the context of suicidal behaviour given the challenges in validation. Discussion and further patient research are needed in this area.
Declaration of interest
D.G., K.H. and N.K. are members of the Department of Health's (England) National Suicide Prevention Advisory Group. N.K. chaired the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline development group for the longer-term management of self-harm and the NICE Topic Expert Group (which developed the quality standards for self-harm services). He is currently chair of the updated NICE guideline for Depression. K.H. and D.G. are NIHR Senior Investigators. K.H. is also supported by the Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust and N.K. by the Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust.
Negative interactions between people and large carnivores are common and will probably increase as the human population and livestock production continue to expand. Livestock predation by wild carnivores can significantly affect the livelihoods of farmers, resulting in retaliatory killings and subsequent conflicts between local communities and conservationists. A better understanding of livestock predation patterns could help guide measures to improve both human relationships and coexistence with carnivores. Environmental variables can influence the intensity of livestock predation, are relatively easy to monitor, and could potentially provide a useful predictive framework for targeting mitigation. We chose lion predation of livestock as a model to test whether variations in environmental conditions trigger changes in predation. Analysing 6 years of incident reports for Pandamatenga village in Botswana, an area of high human–lion conflict, we used generalized linear models to show that significantly more attacks coincided with lower moonlight levels and temperatures, and attack severity increased significantly with extreme minimum temperatures. Furthermore, we found a delayed effect of rainfall: lower rainfall was followed by a significantly increased severity of attacks in the following month. Our results suggest that preventative measures, such as introducing deterrents or changing livestock management, could be implemented adaptively based on environmental conditions. This could be a starting point for investigating similar effects in other large carnivores, to reduce livestock attacks and work towards wider human–wildlife coexistence.
Post-irradiation plastic strain spreading in ferritic grains is investigated by means of three-dimensional dislocation dynamics simulations, whereby dislocation-mediated plasticity mechanisms are analyzed in the presence of various disperse defect populations, for different grain size and orientation cases. Each simulated irradiation condition is then characterized by a specific “defect-induced apparent straining temperature shift” (ΔDIAT) magnitude, reflecting the statistical evolutions of dislocation mobility. It is found that the calculated ΔDIAT level closely matches the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift (ΔDBTT) associated with a given defect dispersion, characterized by the (average) defect size D and defect number density N. The noted ΔDIAT/ΔDBTT correlation can be explained based on plastic strain spreading arguments and applicable to many different ferritic alloy compositions, at least within the range of simulation conditions examined herein. This systematic study represents one essential step toward the development of a fully predictive, dose-dependent fracture model, adapted to polycrystalline ferritic materials.
The likelihood that Palaeolithic artisans sometimes used natural objects as models for their image-making has long been suggested, yet well-contextualized and stratified examples have remained rare. This study examines a series of natural and fabricated items from the Natufian settlement of Wadi Hammeh 27 in Jordan (12,000–12,500 cal. bc) to propose that the site occupants collected a variety of found objects such as fossils, unusually shaped stones and animal bones, which they utilized as templates in the production of geometric art pieces. Natural and fabricated objects were woven into complex schemes of relation by Natufian artisans. Existing patterns were copied and applied to a variety of representational images. Found objects were sometimes subtly modified, whereas at other times they were transformed into finished artefacts. The scute pattern on the tortoise carapace, in particular, appears to have formed the basis of important ritual beliefs across the Natufian culture area. At Wadi Hammeh 27, it was evoked in various media and at various scales to form interrelating tableaux of representation.
We examined whether morphological awareness made a significant contribution to word-level reading across Grades 1 to 4. We test these relations specifically in a task measuring awareness of past-tense forms. A total of 375 children from Grades 1 to 4 completed tasks assessing past-tense morphological awareness along with real word and pseudoword reading. Children also completed control measures assessing phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, sentence-level language skills, and nonverbal cognitive ability. After these controls, past-tense morphological awareness was a significant predictor of real word reading in Grades 1 and 2, but not in Grades 3 and 4. Further, following on all controls, past-tense morphological awareness was a consistent predictor of pseudoword reading across Grades 1 to 4. Morphological awareness, at least as measured with past-tense verbs, appears to have a role in word reading across the early to middle elementary school grades; for young readers, there are relations to reading of both known and novel words, and for older readers, relations are significant specifically in reading novel words. These findings are discussed within the context of theories of word reading development.
The rationale for undertaking this study was to investigate how characteristics of population health relate to and impact disaster risk, resilience, vulnerability, impact, and recovery. The multi-disciplinary environment that contextualizes disaster practice can influence determinants of health. Robust health determinants, or lack thereof, may influence the outcomes of disaster events affecting an individual or a community.
To investigate how the social determinants of health inform community perceptions of disaster risk.
Community perception of disaster risk in reference to the social determinants of health was assessed in this study. Individual interviews with participants from a community were conducted, all of whom were permanent community residents. Thematic analysis was conducted using narrative inquiry to gather firsthand insights on their perceptions of how characteristics of population health relate to and impact an individual’s disaster risk.
Analysis demonstrated commonality between interviewees in perceptions of the influence of the social determinants of health on individual disaster risk by determinant type. Interviewees sensed a strong correlation between low community connection and disaster risk vulnerability. Specific populations thought to have low community connection were perceived to be socially isolated, resulting in low knowledge or awareness of the surrounding disaster risks, or how to prepare and respond to disasters. In addition, they had reduced access to communication and support in time of need.
The importance of a strong social community connection was a feature of this research. Further research on how health determinants can enable disaster risk awareness and disaster risk communication is warranted.
This study profiles climate change as an emerging disaster risk in Oceania. The rationale for undertaking this study was to investigate climate change and disaster risk in Oceania. The role of this analysis is to examine what evidence exists to support decision-making and profile the nature, type, and potential human and economic impact of climate change and disaster risk in Oceania.
To evaluate perceptions of climate change and disaster risk in the Oceania region.
Thirty individual interviews with participants from 9 different countries were conducted. All of the participants were engaged in disaster management in the Oceania region as researchers, practitioners in emergency management, disaster health care and policy managers, or academics. Data collection was conducted between April and November 2017. Thematic analysis was conducted using narrative inquiry to gather first-hand insights on their perceptions of current and emerging threats and propose improvements in risk management practice to capture, monitor, and control disaster risk.
Interviewees who viewed climate change as a risk or hazard described a breadth of impacts. Hazards identified included climate variability and climate-related disasters, climate issues in island areas and loss of land mass, trans-nation migration, and increased transportation risk due to rising sea levels. These emerging risks are reflective of both the geographical location of countries in Oceania, where land mass due to rising oceans has been previously reported and climate change-driven migration of island populations.
Climate change was perceived as a significant contemporary and future risk, and as an influencing factor on other risks in the Oceania region.
The Canterbury Primary Response Group (CPRG) was formed to provide a community-wide approach to manage, coordinate, plan for, and respond to health emergencies in the prehospital setting. Original communications within the CPRG group and to the primary sector were via email and the use of other organizations’ websites. These means were not easy to access and update content, and the group was depending on third parties.
To outline the development of a primary health interactive website, provide up-to-date planning and event information, and provide information and support in relation to emergency planning for major emergency and non-emergency health events.
The advancements of technology and planning practices have given CPRG the ability to develop information, planning, and operational reporting systems.
CPRG has developed a web-based portal that is available to primary health care (including community pharmacy) to provide planning assistance and templates as well as information on current events, such as the influenza season. It includes access to the CPRG suite of emergency plans and is a document repository for the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC). A further development has been a response management system for use in the CPRG EOC to assess any health situation and status of providers to enable a continually up-to-date dashboard and situational awareness reports to be visible to those coordinating the response.
Communication is a major factor, often the most criticized, when managing any response. The development of the CPRG website and system as described can alleviate this and provide accurate and consistent event and planning advice to those in the primary health sector.
The Canterbury Primary Response Group (CPRG) was formed following the threats of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza worldwide. The possible impact of these viruses alerted health care professionals that a community-wide approach was needed to manage and coordinate a response to any outbreak or potential outbreak. In Canterbury, New Zealand, the CPRG group took the responsibility to coordinate and manage the regional, out of hospital, planning and response coordination to annual influenza threats and the possible escalation to pandemic outbreaks.
To outline the formation of a primary health and community-wide planning group, bringing together not only a wide range of health providers, but also key community agencies to plan strategies and responses to seasonal influenza and possible pandemic outbreaks.
CPRG has developed a Pandemic Plan that focuses on the processes, structures, and roles to support and coordinate general practice, community pharmacies, community nursing, and other primary health care providers in the reduction of, readiness for, response to, and recovery from an influenza pandemic. The plan could reasonably apply to other respiratory-type pandemics such as SARS.
A comprehensive group of health professionals and supporting agencies meet monthly (more often if required) under the chair of CPRG to share information of the influenza-like illness (ILI) situation, virus types, and spread, as well as support strategies and response activities. Regular communication information updates are produced and circulated amongst members and primary health providers in the region.
Given that most ILI health consultations and treatments are self or primary health administered and take place outside of hospital services, it is essential for providers to be informed and consistent with their responses and knowledge of the extent and symptoms of ILI and any likelihood of a pandemic.