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This Companion provides an accessible guide for those seeking to comprehend the significance of Vatican II for Catholicism today. It offers a thorough overview of the Second Vatican Council, the most significant event in the history of Roman Catholicism since the Protestant Reformation. Almost six decades since the close of the council, its teaching remains what one pope referred to as a “sure compass” for guiding today's church. The first part of the volume examines the historical, theological, and ecclesial contexts for comprehending the significance of the council. It also presents the key processes as well as the participants who were central to the actual conduct of the council. The second part identifies and explores the central themes embedded in the council documents. The volume concludes with a unique appendix intended to guide students wishing to pursue more advanced research in Vatican II studies.
Interdependence theory is a powerful and applicable theory that has shaped the study of interpersonal relationships for decades, providing foundational constructs and elucidating key assumptions within the burgeoning field of relationship science. Research guided by interdependence theory sheds light on the diverse phenomena within ongoing relationships, including the emergence of co-operation, trust, dependence, power, and relationship maintenance. At its core, interdependence theory pinpoints key elements of daily interactions that predict specific experiences and outcomes that people have in different situations. This handbook goes further to explain how interdependence theory continues to be used fruitfully in research, driving our current understanding of relational processes. We invite you to enter the world of interdependence and discover what top scholars across disciplines are discussing in their efforts to fully understand close, intimate relationships.
For years now, unionization has been under vigorous attack. Membership has been steadily declining, and with it union bargaining power. As a result, unions may soon lose their ability to protect workers from economic and personal abuse, as well as their significance as a political force. In the Name of Liberty responds to this worrying state of affairs by presenting a new argument for unionization, one that derives an argument for universal unionization in both the private and public sector from concepts of liberty that we already accept. In short, In the Name of Liberty reclaims the argument for liberty from the political right, and shows how liberty not only requires the unionization of every workplace as a matter of background justice, but also supports a wide variety of other progressive policies.
Despite a century of study by ecologists, recovery following disturbances (succession) is not fully understood. This book provides the first global synthesis that compares plant succession in all major terrestrial biomes and after all major terrestrial disturbances. It asks critical questions such as: Does succession follow general patterns across biomes and disturbance types? Do factors that control succession differ from biome to biome? If common drivers exist, what are they? Are they abiotic or biotic, or both? The authors provide insights on broad, generalizable patterns that go beyond site-specific studies, and present discussions on factors such as varying temporal dynamics, latitudinal differences, human-caused vs. natural disturbances, and the role of invasive alien species. This book is a must-read for researchers and students in ecology, plant ecology, restoration ecology and conservation biology. It also provides a valuable framework to aid land managers attempting to manipulate successional recovery following increasingly intense and widespread human-made disturbances.
John R. Schneider explores the problem that animal suffering, caused by the inherent nature of Darwinian evolution, poses to belief in theism. Examining the aesthetic aspects of this moral problem, Schneider focuses on the three prevailing approaches to it: that the Fall caused animal suffering in nature (Lapsarian Theodicy), that Darwinian evolution was the only way for God to create an acceptably good and valuable world (Only-Way Theodicy), and that evolution is the source of major, God-justifying beauty (Aesthetic Theodicy). He also uses canonical texts and doctrines from Judaism and Christianity - notably the book of Job, and the doctrines of the incarnation, atonement, and resurrection - to build on insights taken from the non-lapsarian alternative approaches. Schneider thus constructs an original, God-justifying account of God and the evolutionary suffering of animals. His book enables readers to see that the Darwinian configuration of animal suffering unveiled by scientists is not as implausible on Christian theism as commonly supposed.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke sit together in the canon of political thought but are rarely treated in common historical accounts. This book narrates their intertwined careers during the Restoration period, when the two men found themselves in close proximity and entangled in many of the same political conflicts. Bringing new source material to bear, In the Shadow of Leviathan establishes the influence of Hobbesian thought over Locke, particularly in relation to the preeminent question of religious toleration. Excavating Hobbes's now forgotten case for a prudent, politique toleration gifted by sovereign power, Jeffrey R. Collins argues that modern, liberal thinking about toleration was transformed by Locke's gradual emancipation from this Hobbesian mode of thought. This book investigates those landmark events - the civil war, Restoration, the popish plot, the Revolution of 1688 - which eventually forced Locke to confront the limits of politique toleration, and to devise an account of religious freedom as an inalienable right.
Learn about the state-of-the-art at the interface between information theory and data science with this first unified treatment of the subject. Written by leading experts in a clear, tutorial style, and using consistent notation and definitions throughout, it shows how information-theoretic methods are being used in data acquisition, data representation, data analysis, and statistics and machine learning. Coverage is broad, with chapters on signal acquisition, data compression, compressive sensing, data communication, representation learning, emerging topics in statistics, and much more. Each chapter includes a topic overview, definition of the key problems, emerging and open problems, and an extensive reference list, allowing readers to develop in-depth knowledge and understanding. Providing a thorough survey of the current research area and cutting-edge trends, this is essential reading for graduate students and researchers working in information theory, signal processing, machine learning, and statistics.
Psychotherapy in Later Life is a practical how-to-guide for psychiatrists, psychologists and mental health workers on choosing and delivering evidence-based psychological therapies to older adults. It covers all the main evidence-based psychological therapies such as CBT and IPT, as well as specialist topics such as combining psychotherapy with pharmacological treatments, working with diverse populations and individual versus group therapy. The World Health Organization estimates that over the next four decades, the proportion of the world's older adults will nearly double, from 12 percent to 22 percent, and that 1 in 5 older adults has a diagnosable mental health disorder. Given the increasing number of older adults requiring mental health treatment, incorporating talking therapies into treatment plans is key to tackling issues related to polypharmacy, medication interactions and side effects. Written by experts in geriatric mental health, this book provides the most authoritative information on the use of psychotherapy in older adults.
Our world is becoming more urban. More than fifty percent of the global population now lives in cities, which poses new challenges for sustainable development. This book integrates theory and methods of sustainability assessment with concepts from systems science to provide guidelines for assessing the sustainability of urban systems. It discusses different aspects of urban sustainability, from energy and housing, to mobility and health, covering social, economic and environmental factors, as well as the various stakeholders and actors involved. The book argues for the need to find models and solutions in order to design sustainable cities of the future in light of the complexity of urban social life. Including diverse case studies from the developed and developing world, this book provides a useful reference for researchers and students from a broad range of disciplines working in the field of sustainability, as well as for environmental consultants and policy makers.
The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 class of genome editing tools is transforming not just science and medicine, but also law. When the genome of germline cells is modified, the modifications could be inherited, with far-reaching effects in time and scale. Legal systems are struggling with keeping up with the CRISPR revolution and both lawyers and scientists are often confused about existing regulations. This book contains an analysis of the national regulatory framework in eighteen selected countries. Written by national legal experts, it includes all major players in bioengineering, plus an analysis of the emerging international standards and a discussion of how international human rights standards should inform national and international regulatory frameworks. The authors propose a set of principles for the regulation of germline engineering, based on international human rights law, that can be the foundation for regulating heritable gene editing both at the level of countries as well as globally.
Newton's Principia is perhaps the second most famous work of mathematics, after Euclid's Elements. Originally published in 1687, it gave the first systematic account of the fundamental concepts of dynamics, as well as three beautiful derivations of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws of planetary motion. As a book of great insight and ingenuity, it has raised our understanding of the power of mathematics more than any other work. This heavily annotated translation of the third and final edition (1726) of the Principia will enable any reader with a good understanding of elementary mathematics to easily grasp the meaning of the text, either from the translation itself or from the notes, and to appreciate some of its significance. All forward references are given to illuminate the structure and unity of the whole, and to clarify the parts. The mathematical prerequisites for understanding Newton's arguments are given in a brief appendix.
Fifteenth-century Italy witnessed sweeping innovations in the art of sculpture. Sculptors rediscovered new types of images from classical antiquity and invented new ones, devised novel ways to finish surfaces, and pushed the limits of their materials to new expressive extremes. The Art of Sculpture in Fifteenth-Century Italy surveys the sculptural production created by a range of artists throughout the peninsula. It offers a comprehensive overview of Italian sculpture during a century of intense creativity and development. Here, nineteen historians of Quattrocento Italian sculpture chart the many competing forces that led makers, patrons, and viewers to invest sculpture with such heightened importance in this time and place. Methodologically wide-ranging, the essays, specially commissioned for this volume, explore the vast range of techniques and media (stone, metal, wood, terracotta, and stucco) used to fashion works of sculpture. They also examine how viewers encountered those objects, discuss varying approaches to narrative, and ponder the increasing contemporary interest in the relationship between sculpture and history.
How do groups of people fashion shared identities in the modern world? Following two communities of German-speaking Mennonites, one composed of voluntary migrants and the other of refugees, across four continents between 1870 and 1945, this transnational study explores how religious migrants engaged with the phenomenon of nationalism. John P. R. Eicher demonstrates how migrant groups harnessed the global spread of nationalism to secure practical objectives and create local mythologies. In doing so, he also reveals how governments and aid organizations used diasporic groups for their own purposes - and portraying such nomads as enemies or heroes in national and religious mythologies. By underscoring the importance of local and religious counter-stories that run in parallel to nationalist narratives, Exiled Among Nations helps us understand acts of resistance, flight, and diaspora in the modern world.
This book provides students and researchers of bilingualism with the most recent methodological and theoretical advances on how bilinguals resolve ambiguous information across languages. With reports on the latest findings from the behavioral and neuropsychological fields, the authors survey the latest research into bilingual language-system modelling and bilingual lexical ambiguity processing. Each chapter looks at bilingual ambiguity resolution both at the word and sentence levels, explaining how bilinguals ultimately comprehend ambiguous information arising from languages they already know. This volume not only explores enduring theoretical questions in bilingual research, such as bilingual representation and language processing, but also evaluates the extent to which the existing bilingual models can satisfactorily account for the most recent research findings.
The prenatal detection of structural cardiac malformations has greatly benefited from the advances in echo Doppler technology and the in-depth training of specialists in this area. This opens up new possibilities, now and in the future, for developing in utero therapies. It also allows a better knowledge of the underlying mechanisms and developmental timing that lead to structural congenital heart disease (CHD), based on a marked progress involving genetic and epigenetic causes. Gene mutations are discovered in the fetus and parents, and pathways can be unraveled using mouse transgene technology. Epigenetic causes are also receiving attention, but have thus far been underestimated as approximately 85% of CHD is determined to have a multifactorial background that combines a genetic susceptibility with epigenetic influences. Studies in animal models, including chicken, quail, zebrafish, and even more primitive Chordates, contribute relevant data. In essence, cardiac development shows basic similarities of the major processes involved between species. Therefore mechanisms unraveled in animal models can be reliably used in understanding normal human cardiac development and CHD .
Making good decisions prospectively is difficult, especially when there is the perception that the stakes are high. There is often uncertainty regarding prognosis and emotions prevail both between a couple and in the interactions with their healthcare professional team. This is the case when parents have to decide about fetal therapy for congenital malformations and the health of their unborn child. Parents are usually unprepared for the often rare disease the fetus is found to have. Still in a state of shock, they receive a lot of detailed and difficult information, and need to decide whether to choose fetal therapy (which often carries risks of perinatal death or preterm birth as complications), expectant management, or sometimes the very difficult option of termination of pregnancy. The obstetrician or fetal medicine specialist aims to provide the parents with all the relevant factual information and to support them in their decision process.
The duodenum lies in front of the right kidney and renal vessels, the right psoas muscle, the inferior vena cava, and the aorta (Figure 26.1).
The duodenum is approximately 25 cm in length. It is the most fixed part of the small intestine and has no mesentery. It is anatomically divided into four parts:
The superior or first portion is intraperitoneal along the anterior half of its circumference. Superiorly, the first portion is attached to the hepatoduodenal ligament. The posterior wall is associated with the gastroduodenal artery, common bile duct, and the portal vein.
The descending or second portion shares a medial border with the head of the pancreas. It is bordered posteriorly by the medial surface of the right kidney, the right renal vessels, and the inferior vena cava. The hepatic flexure and transverse colon cross anteriorly. The common bile duct and main pancreatic duct drain into the medial wall of the descending duodenum.
The transverse or third portion is also entirely retroperitoneal. Posteriorly, it is bordered by the inferior vena cava and the aorta. The superior mesenteric vessels cross in front of this portion of the duodenum.
The ascending or fourth portion of the duodenum is approximately 2.5 cm in length and is primarily retroperitoneal, except for the most distal segment. It crosses anterior to and ascends to the left of the aorta to join the jejunum at the ligament of Treitz.
The common bile duct courses laterally within the hepatodudenal ligament and lies posterior to the first portion of the duodenum and pancreatic head, becoming partially invested within the parenchyma of the pancreatic head. The main pancreatic duct then joins the common bile duct to drain into the ampulla of Vater within the second portion of the duodenum. The ampulla of Vater is located approximately 7 cm from the pylorus. The accessory pancreatic duct drains approximately 2 cm proximal to the ampulla of Vater.
The vascular supply to the duodenum is intimately associated with the head of the pancreas. The head of the pancreas and the second portion of the duodenum derive their blood supply from the anterior and posterior pancreaticoduodenal arcades (Figure 26.2). These arcades lie on the surface of the pancreas near the duodenal C loop. Attempts to separate these two organs at this location usually results in ischemia of the duodenum.
The lower extremity fascial compartments include three gluteal, three thigh, four calf, and nine of the foot. These compartments contain muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
The compartments of the buttock include the gluteus maximus, the gluteus medius/minimus, and the extension of the fascia lata of the thigh into the gluteal region. The sciatic nerve is the only major neurovascular structure in the compartments of the buttock.
The thigh has three compartments:
The anterior compartment contains the quadriceps femoris and sartorius muscles, as well as the femoral vessels and femoral nerve.
The posterior compartment contains the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles and the sciatic nerve.
The medial compartment contains the adductor muscle group and the gracilis muscle.
The lower leg has four leg compartments:
The anterior compartment: Contains the tibialis anterior muscle, extensor halluces muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle, the anterior tibial artery, and the deep peroneal nerve.
The lateral compartment: Contains the peroneus longus and brevis muscles, and the superficial peroneal nerve.
The superficial posterior compartment: Contains the gastrocnemius muscle, soleus muscles, plantaris muscle, and the sural nerve.
The deep posterior compartment: Contains the flexor hallucis longus muscle, flexor digitorum longus muscle, tibialis posterior muscles, popliteus muscle, the posterior tibial artery, and the tibial nerve.
The foot contains a total of nine compartments, including four interosseous (medial, lateral, deep, and superficial central) and the adductor hallucis compartments that may require decompression in crush injuries to the foot. The medial, lateral, and superficial compartments pass through the entire length of the foot, while the interosseous compartments and the calcaneal compartments are confined to the forefoot and the hind foot, respectively.