To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Political parties with activists are in decline due to various external shocks. Societal changes, like the emergence of new technologies of communication have diminished the role and number of activists, while party elites increasingly can make do without grassroots activists. However, recent scholarship concerning different democracies has shown how activism still matters for representation. This book contributes to this literature by analyzing the unique case of the Uruguayan Frente Amplio (FA), the only mass-organic, institutionalized leftist party in Latin America. Using thick description, systematic process tracing, and survey research, this case study highlights the value of an organization-centered approach for understanding parties' role in democracy. Within the FA, organizational rules grant activists a significant voice, which imbues activists' participation with a strong sense of efficacy. This book is an excellent resource for scholars and students of Latin America and comparative politics who are interested in political parties and the challenges confronting new democracies.
The chapter addresses the role and content of Spanish constitutional identity. It first considers the stance of the Spanish Constitutional Court. In this regard, Spain joins the list of EU Member States whose constitutional courts do not accept the principle of primacy’s effectiveness in EU law vis-à-vis the Constitution. In order to contain the unlimited scope of that principle, the Constitutional Court has come up with an original and controversial distinction between the primacy of EU law and the supremacy of the Constitution. It also acknowledges that there is a core of the Constitution – its constitutional identity – that falls outside the scope of primacy. Its content lies in the respect for state sovereignty, for basic constitutional structures, and for the system of core values and principles in the Constitution, where fundamental rights acquire their own substantive nature. The chapter also examines the role of constitutional identity in the context of the Catalan secessionist movement. It considers that ensuring the state’s territorial integrity is an indispensable part of constitutional identity, whilst providing an obligation incumbent on the EU under Art. 4(2) TEU.
One key step in the process of development is the transition from the personalistic rules and privileges that characterise developing societies to open access orders and rational–legal bureaucracies sustaining impersonal rules. This article uses a micro-data set of Spanish officers to study the politicisation of the army during the Second Republic (1931–1939) taking Franco's Africanist faction as the case study. The military reforms during 1931–1933 increased the impersonality of rules determining the promotion of officers, but executive discretionary powers persisted. The results suggest that changes in the government affected the dynamics of the army. Under conservative governments (1934–1935), Africanists were promoted more rapidly. Centre-left governments during the period of 1931–1933 did not systematically promote Africanists differently, but the revision of promotions in 1933 slowed their careers. The politicisation of the army was one of the factors contributing to the military coup that started the Spanish Civil War.
Initiatives to foster a transition toward organic agriculture have drawn policy-makers' interest worldwide. However, research studies evaluating the effectiveness of policies intended to promote ‘scaling-out’ organic production systems to more farms and larger production areas are still rare. To better understand the role that public procurement and price incentive policies have in scaling-out organic transitions, we assessed the effects of the Brazilian Food Acquisition Program (PAA) in a group of municipalities. PAA offers both markets for family farmers and price incentives for certified organic products. However, our findings suggest that farmers who establish organic production systems and become certified also gain access to other markets; ones that they find more attractive than those created by the PAA. Thus, we find that the PAA offers insufficient incentives for adopting organic practices among peasant and family farmers and supports the argument that scaling-out organic production is a multilevel process that depends on different, but interrelated drivers.
Tubular pottery comprises certain peculiar artifacts that were produced by late Holocene complex hunter-gatherer societies in southeastern South America for unknown purposes. Some authors have related them to mortuary behaviour which has also been suggested by historical sources, while others have considered domestic use. In this paper, the technical, compositional and functional properties of these artifacts are explored in order to contrast both hypotheses, given an example of how technical analysis allows the identification of special pottery within archeological contexts. This analysis includes a study of the fabrics involved using low and high magnification, thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and fatty acid profiles. The results show that these tubular artifacts are not fit structurally for utilitarian purposes and show no evidence of domestic use. Based on these results and on historical data, it can be postulated that they were used as part of mortuary rituals, thus becoming part of the select global group of pottery manufactured exclusively for mortuary purposes.
Greenhouse and outdoor container experiments were conducted to determine garden spurge and large crabgrass emergence when seeds were placed either on top of or below three different mulch materials [pine bark (PB), hardwood (HW), or pine straw (PS)] applied at five depths (0, 1.3, 2.5, 5.1, and 10.2 cm). To elucidate mulch characteristics that contributed to weed control, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) was recorded underneath each mulch layer, moisture retention was monitored for 24 h following irrigation, and particle size was determined using standard soil sieves. HW reduced PAR (97%) more than did PB (90%) or PS (92%) at 1.3 cm, but few or no differences were noted between mulches at greater mulch depths. HW also contained the highest percentage of small particles and consequently retained more water (29%), than PB (14%) or PS (22%) 24 h following a simulated irrigation event. Emergence of large crabgrass and garden spurge was consistently greater when seeds were placed on top of the mulch, compared to seeds placed below. Emergence of both species also tended to respond to increasing depth in a quadratic manner, indicating that once a critical level of mulch was applied (2.5 to 5 cm), further reductions in weed emergence would not be observed, at least over the short term (12 wk). PB and PS tended to provide a greater reduction in emergence of both species compared to HW. This research also indicates that larger particle materials such as PB or PS would be advantageous because of their ability to suppress weed emergence regardless of seed position.
To identify modifiable risk factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Colombia.
Cross-sectional study from the 2010 Colombia nationally representative Demographic Health Survey (DHS). Studied exposures were categorized into five hierarchical blocks of increasing proximity to the outcomes: household, maternal, health systems, child, and early feeding characteristics. The two outcomes examined were delayed breastfeeding initiation among infants <24 months and interruption of EBF among infants <6 months. Prevalence ratios were computed using Poisson regression analysis with robust error variance, adjusted for sampling weights, following a hierarchical modelling approach.
Nationally representative cross-sectional survey from Colombia.
The EIBF analytical sample included 6592 and the EBF sample 1512 women with young children.
EIBF prevalence was 65·6 % in children under 24 months and EBF was 43 % in infants under 6 months. Modifiable risk factors associated with delayed breastfeeding initiation were: C-section (PR = 2·08, CI 95 % = 1·92, 2·25), maternal overweight/obesity (PR = 1·09, CI 95 % = 1·01, 1·17), lack of skilled attendant at birth (PR = 1·09, CI 95 % = 1·01, 1·18). Modifiable risk factors for EBF interruption were C-section (PR = 1·12, CI 95 % = 1·02, 1·23) and prelacteal feeding (PR = 1·51, CI 95 % = 1·37, 1·68). Non-pregnancy intention was a protective factor for EBF interruption (PR = 0·82, CI 95 % = 0·72, 0·93).
C-section, lack of skilled attendant at birth, prelacteal feeding, maternal nutritional status, and pregnancy intention were modifiable factors associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Colombia.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Glyphosate resistance has evolved worldwide. Glyphosate is also the most used herbicide in Spain, and current changes in herbicide usage patterns can increase the risk of glyphosate resistance development. The objective of this study was to assess the glyphosate sensitivity of different selected weed species important in Spanish maize (Zea mays L.) fields. To this end, dose-response experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in a growth chamber to examine variation in glyphosate sensitivity amongst populations of five grass weed species and eight broadleaved weed species that are commonly found in the maize fields in Castilla y León, the biggest maize growing region in Spain. The glyphosate doses that caused growth reduction by 50% (GR50) were calculated for each weed population. No populations were resistant to glyphosate. In addition, baseline values of glyphosate sensitivity were determined for each weed species. The GR50 baseline values ranged from 10.25-53.23 g ai ha-1 for the dicotyledonous weed species and from 16.05 to 66.34 g ai ha-1 for the monocotyledonous weed species. The ratio between the GR50 values of the least and most sensitive populations was used to determine the SI50 index (sensitivity index at 50% growth reduction) for each weed species. The SI50 values showed a 1.4-3.3-fold difference in sensitivity for dicotyledonous weed species and 1.4-2.4-fold difference for monocotyledonous weed species. The sensitivity index was also calculated as the ratio between the GR50 values of the least sensitive population and the baseline GR50 value estimated for a range of susceptible populations (SI50b). SI50b values showed a 1.2-1.6-fold difference in sensitivity for dicotyledonous weed species and 1.1-1.2-fold difference for monocotyledonous weed species. The sensitivity data generated in this study provide a reference for determining time-dependent changes in glyphosate sensitivity in the commonly found weeds in the maize fields of Castilla y Léon.
Hybrid welding is a process used in aeronautical materials to obtain benefits such as complete penetration, narrow heat affected zones, reduce filler material used, among others, mainly due the ability of the process to control filler-metal additions and heat input in materials such as steels, titanium and aluminum alloys. Recently a new industrial revolution is taken place called manufacturing 4.0, the aeronautical and automotive industry have a great interest in all the pillars which making it up, one of the principal pillars is the big data analysis such as welding parameters applied in advances welding processes. The present work describes a welding optimization applying non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-III (NSGA-III) to find and predict depth penetration (DP) and mechanical properties, specifically ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in ASTM 1520 steel welded by a hybrid laser arc welding with the objective to improve the weld quality. A diverse experiment were used in order to obtain a suitable model, considering welding speed (WS), wire feed rate (WF), voltage (V), current (A) and laser power (P). The experimental results demonstrated that the pareto front values obtained by NSGA-III improve the DP and UTS. Microstructural phases and mechanical properties were discuss to complement the values obtained and chosen.
Psychiatry's most recent foray into the area of risk and prevention has been spear-headed by work on at-risk mental states for psychotic disorders. Twenty-five years' research and clinical application have led us to reformulate the clinical evolution of these syndromes, blurred unhelpful conceptual boundaries between childhood and adult life by adopting a developmental view and has changed the shape of many mental health services as part of a global movement to increase quality. But there are problems: fragmentary psychotic experiences are common in young people but transition from risk-state to full syndrome is uncommon away from specialist clinics with rarefied referrals and can, anyway, be subtle; diagnostic over-shadowing by the prospect of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders may divert clinical attention from the kaleidoscopic and disabling range of probably treatable psychopathology with which people with risk syndromes present. We use a 19th Century lyric poem, The Lady of Shallot, as an allegory for Psychiatry warning us against regarding these mental states only as pointers towards diagnoses that probably will not occur. Viewed from the fresh perspective of common mental disorders they tell us a great deal about the psychopathological crucible of the second and third decades, the nature of diagnosis, and point towards new treatment paradigms.
Considering their distinctive properties, titanium alloys are used in foremost industries, including the aeronautic, automotive and biomedical industries. The reduced machinability of titanium alloys is due to their low thermal conductivity and high plasticity behavior. In the biomedical sector, one of the most studied alloys is Ti-6Al-4V. In the case of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy, scarce investigations are identified, related to machinability studies. The machining of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy requires the development of new tools with higher properties, which provide better performance. The objective of this study is to present the experimental results related to a novel ceramic cutting tool, in terms of cutting tool life and productivity, in the machining of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy. A turning operation of a 25 mm diameter bar was performed; the cutting speed was varied in three levels. The results showed the high performance of this type of tools, from the point of view of machinability. The values of the obtained cutting forces are found in the ranges reported by the consulted literature using ceramic tools. The surface roughness values were considered appropriate, taking into account that the tool is recommended for roughing and semi-finishing operations. The most relevant results were obtained in terms of productivity, considering that the performance is 2.53 times higher than the presented in similar works.
Development of biomaterials with primary amine surfaces is very important for the study of some cells of the immune systemuch as macrophages. Currently, the modification can be carried out by physical or chemical methods with several disadvantages due to the presence of additives or subproducts in the system. To overcome this problem, modified polypropylene (PP) films were synthesized by gamma radiation. In this work, radiation grafting of acryloyl chloride onto PP has been employed to form an acyl chloride. Then, the radiation-grafted films were reacted with ethylenediamine in several solvents to obtain the different concentration of the primary amine. The surface amine concentration was determined by derivatization with 4-trifluoromethyl benzaldehyde and characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (N/C ratios), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and elementary analysis. The stability of the amines was measured up to 90 days, without the occurrence of aging as was found by plasma modification.
Food hubs are of interest in regional and local food system development because they potentially enhance the sustainability of food supply chains. Expanding on earlier literature, this study introduces economies of scale into an aggregation hub location model and disaggregates production into four seasons to account for geographic and seasonal variation of US fresh produce production. A mixed integer linear programming model is formulated with the objective of minimizing total costs of assembly and first-handler operations. Results suggest scale economies have significant effects on the optimal number, locations, and sizes of aggregation hubs. We model regional and local food systems in a manner more consistent with economic theory and provide a richer framework for policy analysis.
Based on stratigraphic excavation data and associated radiocarbon dates we argue that the pre-Hispanic city of Cerro Jazmín, in the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca, underwent a period of political change between the Late Formative (300 b.c.–a.d. 50) and the Terminal Formative periods (a.d. 50–300). This shift is reflected in the city's layout and in the timing of construction and use of two different monumental sectors. During the city's Late Formative occupation, we found evidence of more exclusionary feasting activity taking place in a secluded monumental sector called the Sunken Courtyards near the hilltop. In the Terminal Formative, however, monumental construction expanded in the more accessible Tres Cerritos sector where larger and accessible public areas were the focus of activity. We argue that changes in the city's layout, along with the differing patterns of feasting, suggest that the city's leaders went from a more exclusionary form of government to a more collective political strategy during the Terminal Formative period. Despite of these efforts monumental construction largely stopped and the city's population declined by the start of the Classic period (a.d. 300).
New global history studies have provided theoretical models related to different paths of economic growth and consumer behaviour between East Asia (mainly China and Japan) and Europe during the period of the first industrialisation. However, more research challenging the Eurocentric views of the origins of globalisation is needed. In this article, I examine the exchanges of Chinese silks and porcelains and European wines and liquors for American silver through the Swedish Grill Company. This company had extensive business activities in Canton and Macao establishing strategic links and intermediation with other relevant companies from China, Manila, Seville and Marseille. On the global level, such exchanges played a crucial role for the accumulation of American silver in China during the Qing dynasty, and the outflows of Chinese goods to the Americas and Europe fostered market integration and globalisation that occurred earlier than 1820.
This paper offers an alternative perspective to the traditional interpretation of Hegel's philosophical reflection on history, departing from a reinterpretation of Hegel's reading of the tragic action of Antigone in Chapter VI of the Phenomenology of Spirit. The customary interpretation of this text affirms that Hegel shows how the conflict of tragic action finds its truth and its end in the identity of spirit. Tragic conflict is left behind to the same extent that (modern historical) spirit sublates the Greek ethical substance. This way, spirit can guarantee that our historical time is released from the past of the substance, or the spiritual movement of mediation from the immediacy of an ‘in-itself’. My reading, by contrast, finds under the tragic conflict of this text of Hegel's nothing but the ‘no’ of death that negates itself, or a principle that has the form of an original and irreducible conflict. Under this interpretation of Hegelian spirit, it becomes clear that it can neither fail to posit some form of ‘in-itself’ nor sublate its own tragic nature. This way it is shown that Hegel's reflection on the past does not reassure the superiority of the identity of the (modern) present (as the end of history), but rather illuminates its ‘broken’ nature. I thus offer an alternative view on Hegel's comprehension of the relation between present and past and between philosophy and time.