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Despite the frequency that refugees suffer bereavement, there is a dearth of research into the prevalence and predictors of problematic grief reactions in refugees. To address this gap, this study reports a nationally representative population-based study of refugees to determine the prevalence of probable prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its associated problems.
This study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia (BNLA) prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to Australia between October 2013 and February 2014. The current data were collected in 2015–2016, and comprised 1767 adults, as well as 411 children of the adult respondents. Adult refugees were assessed for trauma history, post-migration difficulties, probable PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mental illness. Children were administered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
In this cohort, 38.1% of refugees reported bereavement, of whom 15.8% reported probable PGD; this represents 6.0% of the entire cohort. Probable PGD was associated with a greater likelihood of mental illness, probable PTSD, severe mental illness, currently unemployed and reported disability. Children of refugees with probable PGD reported more psychological difficulties than those whose parents did not have probable PGD. Probable PGD was also associated with the history of imprisonment, torture and separation from family. Only 56.3% of refugees with probable PGD had received psychological assistance.
Bereavement and probable PGD appear highly prevalent in refugees, and PGD seems to be associated with disability in the refugees and psychological problems in their children. The low rate of access to mental health assistance for these refugees highlights that there is a need to address this issue in refugee populations.
Reduction of the pulse width has been reported to improve ECT outcomes with unilateral ECT (similar efficacy, fewer cognitive side effects), but has been minimally studied for bitemporal ECT. The only study comparing brief and ultrabrief pulse bitemporal ECT found reduced efficacy for bitemporal ultrabrief compared to bitemporal brief pulse stimulation. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to test if ultrabrief pulse bitemporal ECT results in fewer cognitive side effects than brief pulse bitemporal ECT, when given at doses adjusted with the aim of achieving comparable efficacy.
Thirty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive ultrabrief (at 3 times seizure threshold) or brief (at 1.5 times seizure threshold) pulse bitemporal ECT given 3 times a week in a double-blind, controlled proof-of-concept trial. Blinded raters assessed mood and cognitive functioning over the ECT course.
Efficacy and cognitive outcomes did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups over the ECT course. The ultrabrief pulse group performed better on a test of visual memory assessed acutely after an ECT treatment.
This study suggests there may be a small cognitive advantage in giving bitemporal ECT with an ultrabrief pulse when dosage is increased to match the efficacy of brief pulse bitemporal ECT, but the study was underpowered to fully examine this issue.
Widespread and repeated use of glyphosate resulted in an increase in glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. This led to an urgent need for diversification of weed control programs and use of PRE herbicides with alternative sites of action. Field experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period (2015 to 2018) across three locations in Nebraska to evaluate the effects of PRE-applied herbicides on critical time for weed removal (CTWR) in GR soybean. The studies were laid out in a split-plot arrangement with herbicide regime as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. The herbicide regimes used were either no PRE or premix of either sulfentrazone plus imazethapyr (350 + 70 g ai ha−1) or saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus pyroxasulfone (26 + 70 + 120 g ai ha−1). The weed removal timings were at V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 soybean stages, with weed-free and weedy season-long checks. Weeds were removed by application of glyphosate (1,400 g ae ha−1) or by hoeing. The results across all years and locations suggested that the use of PRE herbicides delayed CTWR in soybean. In particular, the CTWR without PRE herbicides was determined to be around the V1 to V2 (14 to 21 d after emergence [DAE]) growth stage, depending on the location and weed pressure. The use of PRE-applied herbicides delayed CTWR from about the V4 (28 DAE) stage up to the R5 (66 DAE) stage. These results suggest that the use of PRE herbicides in GR soybean could delay the need for POST application of glyphosate by 2 to 5 wk, thereby reducing the need for multiple applications of glyphosate during the growing season. Additionally, the use of PRE herbicides could provide additional modes of action needed to manage GR weeds in GR soybean.
Vasil Pavlov, Attorney at Law, Patent and Trademark Attorney and European Trademark and Design Attorney at Pavlov & Co.,
Momchil Lazarov, Attorney at Law, Industrial property representative and European Trademark and Design Attorney at Pavlov & Co.
NATIONAL LAW IMPLEMENTING THE ENFORCEMENT DIRECTIVE
A. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LAW
– Law on Copyright and Related Rights (LCRR)
– Law on Administrative Regulation of the Manufacturing and Trading of Optical Discs, Matrices and Other Carriers, Holding Subjects to Copyright
– Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration (LPUMR)
– Law on Trademarks and Geographical Indications (LTGI)
– Law on Industrial Design (LID)
– Law on the Protection of New Plant Varieties and Animal Breeds
– Law on Topography of Integrated Circuits
B. TRANSPOSITION ISSUES
Directive 2004/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights (“the Enforcement Directive”) came into force for Bulgaria as from January 1st 2007 – the date of the country's accession to the European Union. Nevertheless, the national legislation was harmonised with the Enforcement Directive far prior to accession, as part of the pre-accession process. Thus, the amendments of the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (LCRR) implementing the Enforcement Directive came into force as from January 1st 2006, the amendments of the Law on Trademarks and Geographical Indications (LTGI) and the Law on Industrial Design (LID) implementing the Enforcement Directive came into force as from October 6th 2006, the amendments of the Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration (LPUMR), implementing only Section 3 of the Enforcement Directive, came into force as from November 9th 2006. The Law on Administrative Regulation of the Manufacturing and Trading of Optical Discs, Matrices and Other Carriers, Holding Subjects to Copyright entered into force even before those mentioned above – on October 13th 2005.
The Law on the Protection of New Plant Varieties and Animal Breeds and Law on Topography of Integrated Circuits have not yet been harmonised with the Enforcement Directive, but bearing in mind the vertical direct effect of the Enforcement Directive, it might has direct implementation in these fields too.
JURISDICTION AND COMPETENCE
A. COMPETENCE OF LOCAL COURTS
In contrast to some EU Member States, Bulgaria chose to have no centralised IP court, but to instead follow specialisation only with respect to some IP objects, such as patents, trademarks and industrial designs. Furthermore, the specialisation relates only to civil procedures, not to criminal or administrative ones.
The mental health and social functioning of millions of forcibly displaced individuals worldwide represents a key public health priority for host governments. This is the first longitudinal study with a representative sample to examine the impact of interpersonal trust and psychological symptoms on community engagement in refugees.
Participants were 1894 resettled refugees, assessed within 6 months of receiving a permanent visa in Australia, and again 2–3 years later. Variables measured included post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression/anxiety symptoms, interpersonal trust and engagement with refugees’ own and other communities.
A multilevel path analysis was conducted, with the final model evidencing good fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.97, Tucker–Lewis Index = 0.89, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.05, Standardized Root-Mean-Square-Residual = 0.05). Findings revealed that high levels of depression symptoms were associated with lower subsequent engagement with refugees’ own communities. In contrast, low levels of interpersonal trust were associated with lower engagement with the host community over the same timeframe.
Findings point to differential pathways to social engagement in the medium-term post-resettlement. Results indicate that depression symptoms are linked to reduced engagement with one's own community, while interpersonal trust is implicated in engagement with the broader community in the host country. These findings have potentially important implications for policy and clinical practice, suggesting that clinical and support services should target psychological symptoms and interpersonal processes when fostering positive adaptation in resettled refugees.
Various ontology visualization tools using different visualization methods exist and new ones are being developed every year. The goal of this paper is to follow up on previous surveys with an updated classification of ontology visualization methods and a comprehensive survey of available tools. The tools are analyzed for the used visualization methods, interaction techniques and supported ontology constructs. It shows that most of the tools apply two-dimensional node-link visualizations with a focus on class hierarchies. Color and shape are used with little variation, support for constructs introduced with version 2 of the OWL Web Ontology Language is limited, and it often remains vague what tasks and use cases are supported by the visualizations. Major challenges are the limited maturity and usability of many of the tools as well as providing an overview of large ontologies while also showing details on demand. We see a high demand for a universal ontology visualization framework implementing a core set of visual and interactive features that can be extended and customized to respective use cases.
This paper sets up the foundations for derived algebraic geometry, Goerss–Hopkins obstruction theory, and the construction of commutative ring spectra in the abstract setting of operadic algebras in symmetric spectra in an (essentially) arbitrary model category. We show that one can do derived algebraic geometry a la Toën–Vezzosi in an abstract category of spectra. We also answer in the affirmative a question of Goerss and Hopkins by showing that the obstruction theory for operadic algebras in spectra can be done in the generality of spectra in an (essentially) arbitrary model category. We construct strictly commutative simplicial ring spectra representing a given cohomology theory and illustrate this with a strictly commutative motivic ring spectrum representing higher order products on Deligne cohomology. These results are obtained by first establishing Smith’s stable positive model structure for abstract spectra and then showing that this category of spectra possesses excellent model-theoretic properties: we show that all colored symmetric operads in symmetric spectra valued in a symmetric monoidal model category are admissible, i.e., algebras over such operads carry a model structure. This generalizes the known model structures on commutative ring spectra and
-ring spectra in simplicial sets or motivic spaces. We also show that any weak equivalence of operads in spectra gives rise to a Quillen equivalence of their categories of algebras. For example, this extends the familiar strictification of
-rings to commutative rings in a broad class of spectra, including motivic spectra. We finally show that operadic algebras in Quillen equivalent categories of spectra are again Quillen equivalent. This paper is also available at arXiv:1410.5699v2.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.