Several species of Heteroptera are responsible for kernel damage in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae), which affects bread-making quality. In Europe, the most noxious bugs belong to the genera Eurygaster (Scutelleridae) and Aelia (Pentatomidae). In the present work, five bug species frequently found in wheat fields in north-western Italy, Eurygaster maura, E. austriaca, Aelia acuminata, Nezara viridula and Carpocoris purpureipennis, were tested in field trials for their capacity to induce wheat damage. The sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume test was used as the qualitative control. Among the bug species tested, E. maura was the most noxious pest, with C. purpureipennis being almost as noxious as E. maura. In contrast, E. austriaca and A. acuminata, which have been considered the wheat pests of major importance, as well as N. viridula, caused no or only moderate damage to wheat quality. The adoption of an antiserum specifically produced with E. maura salivary glands proved to be effective and specific in detecting bug damage. Therefore, this polyclonal antibody is promising for the development of a reliable test for the quick evaluation of commercial wheat flour batches.