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International human rights law has expanded remarkably since the 1990s. It is therefore more important than ever to identify, beyond specific controversies, its deeper structure and the general pattern of evolution. Moreover, it has a logic of its own: though part of international law, it borrows many of its principles from domestic constitutional law. This leading textbook meets both challenges. It has been significantly updated for the new third edition, introducing sections on subjects including business and human rights, amongst other key areas. Features include forty new cases from various jurisdictions or expert bodies, and figures offering visual descriptions of the procedures discussed in the text. The 'questions for discussion' have also been systematically updated. The text retains its student-friendly design, and the features which made the previous editions so engaging and accessible remain. This popular textbook continues to be an essential tool for all students of human rights law.
Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
In this study, we address the modification of sheared turbulence by dispersed inertial particles. The preferential sampling of the straining regions of the flow by inertial particles in turbulence leads to an inhomogeneous distribution of particles. The strong gravitational loading exerted by the highly concentrated regions results in anisotropic alteration of turbulence at small scales in the direction of gravity. These effects are investigated in a rapid distortion theory (RDT) extended for two-way coupled particle-laden flows. To make the analysis tractable, we assume that particles have small but non-zero inertia. In the classical results for single-phase flows, the RDT assumption of fast shearing compared to the turbulence time scales leads to the distortion and shear-induced production of turbulence. In particle-laden turbulence, the coupling between the two phases under rapid shearing induces number density fluctuations that convert gravitational potential energy to turbulent kinetic energy and modulate the turbulence spectrum in a manner that increases with mass loading. Turbulence statistics obtained from RDT are compared with Euler–Lagrange simulations of homogeneously sheared particle-laden turbulence.
The YBJ equation (Young & Ben Jelloul, J. Marine Res., vol. 55, 1997, pp. 735–766) provides a phase-averaged description of the propagation of near-inertial waves (NIWs) through a geostrophic flow. YBJ is obtained via an asymptotic expansion based on the limit
is the Burger number of the NIWs. Here we develop an improved version, the YBJ+ equation. In common with an earlier improvement proposed by Thomas, Smith & Bühler (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 817, 2017, pp. 406–438), YBJ+ has a dispersion relation that is second-order accurate in
. (YBJ is first-order accurate.) Thus both improvements have the same formal justification. But the dispersion relation of YBJ+ is a Padé approximant to the exact dispersion relation and with
of order unity this is significantly more accurate than the power-series approximation of Thomas et al. (2017). Moreover, in the limit of high horizontal wavenumber
, the wave frequency of YBJ+ asymptotes to twice the inertial frequency
. This enables solution of YBJ+ with explicit time-stepping schemes using a time step determined by stable integration of oscillations with frequency
. Other phase-averaged equations have dispersion relations with frequency increasing as
(Thomas et al. 2017): in these cases stable integration with an explicit scheme becomes impractical with increasing horizontal resolution. The YBJ+ equation is tested by comparing its numerical solutions with those of the Boussinesq and YBJ equations. In virtually all cases, YBJ+ is more accurate than YBJ. The error, however, does not go rapidly to zero as the Burger number characterizing the initial condition is reduced: advection and refraction by geostrophic eddies reduces in the initial length scale of NIWs so that
increases with time. This increase, if unchecked, would destroy the approximation. We show, however, that dispersion limits the damage by confining most of the wave energy to low
. In other words, advection and refraction by geostrophic flows does not result in a strong transfer of initially near-inertial energy out of the near-inertial frequency band.
In this article, we propose three-dimensional antenna systems for determining the position of electromagnetic radiation source at an unknown location. Received signal power at different antennas and position of radiation source are used as training data for Artificial Neural Network (ANN). It is found that, a well-trained ANN is computationally efficient and capable of predicting the unknown location of the source, from the received power pattern. Two multi-antenna systems with geometry in three dimensions, namely the cube and frustum, are considered in this paper. Further, test results of the proposed method for random positions of electromagnetic source, spanning a hemisphere, are presented for the geometries considered.
We study the asymptotic distribution of the total claim amount for marked Poisson cluster models. The marks determine the size and other characteristics of the individual claims and potentially influence the arrival rate of future claims. We find sufficient conditions under which the total claim amount satisfies the central limit theorem or, alternatively, tends in distribution to an infinite-variance stable random variable. We discuss several Poisson cluster models in detail, paying special attention to the marked Hawkes process as our key example.
The field of in situ nanomechanics is greatly benefiting from microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated microscale testing machines that can measure a wide range of mechanical properties at nanometer scales, while characterizing the damage or microstructure evolution in electron microscopes. This article focuses on the latest advances in MEMS-based nanomechanical testing techniques that go beyond stress and strain measurements under typical monotonic loadings. Specifically, recent advances in MEMS testing machines now enable probing key mechanical properties of nanomaterials related to fracture, fatigue, and wear. Tensile properties can be measured without instabilities or at high strain rates, and signature parameters such as activation volume can be obtained. Opportunities for environmental in situ nanomechanics enabled by MEMS technology are also discussed.
Mathematical models and simulations demonstrate the power of majority rules, i.e. following an opinion shared by a majority of group members. Majority opinion should be followed more when (a) the relative and absolute size of the majority grow, the members of the majority are (b) competent, and (c) benevolent, (d) the majority opinion conflicts less with our prior beliefs and (e) the members of the majority formed their opinions independently. We review the experimental literature bearing on these points. The few experiments bearing on (b) and (c) suggest that both factors are adequately taken into account. Many experiments show that (d) is also followed, with participants usually putting too much weight on their own opinion relative to that of the majority. Regarding factors (a) and (e), in contrast, the evidence is mixed: participants sometimes take into account optimally the absolute and relative size of the majority, as well as the presence of informational dependencies. In other circumstances, these factors are ignored. We suggest that an evolutionary framework can help make sense of these conflicting results by distinguishing between evolutionarily valid cues – that are readily taken into account – and non-evolutionarily valid cues – that are ignored by default.
French legal culture, from the Middle Ages to the present day, has had an impressive influence on legal norms and institutions that have emerged in Europe and the Americas, as well as in Asian and African countries. This volume examines the lives of twenty-seven key legal thinkers in French history, with a focus on how their Christian faith and ideals were a factor in framing the evolution of French jurisprudence. Professors Olivier Descamps and Rafael Domingo bring together this diverse group of distinguished legal scholars and historians to provide a unique comparative study of law and religion that will be of value to scholars, lawyers, and students. The collaboration among French and non-French scholars, and the diversity of international and methodological perspectives, gives this volume its own unique character and value to add to this fascinating series.