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Computed tomographic (CT) imaging allows new accessibility to shells of gastropod fossil taxa and their extant relatives, providing new data for interpreting former systematic assignments. The highly questionable ellobiid assignment of the nonmarine gastropod genus Protocarychium Pan, 1982 from the Lower Jurassic of Hunan, China, is reevaluated using CT imaging to assess internal aspects of the shell. By comparing these new data to those of stylommatophoran, ellobiid, and caenogastropod clades in the literature, this work reveals that Protocarychium bears no affinity to the Carychiidae, which are otherwise known only from the Cenozoic, but rather to the Paleozoic land snail family Anthracopupidae Wenz, 1938. This finding constitutes the first Asian appearance of anthracopupid snails beyond their known North American and European range. Contrary to the current opinion, we suggest the Anthracopupidae to be a basal stylommatophoran clade, which places the origin of Stylommatophora at least in the late Carboniferous.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
The field of nanomedicine is quickly evolving in response to achievements in genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, bioengineering, and the imaging sciences. New approaches to entrenched medical problems are being studied using a cadre of “nanotools”, one example of which is perfluorocarbon nanoparticles.Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles represent a platform technology with nominal sizes around 250nm, which can be modified to home to thrombi and the neovasculature in vivo after intravenous injection. They can be noninvasively imaged with ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR, 1H and 19F), or SPECT/CT. In rabbit models, perfluorocarbon nanoparticles have been demonstrated to deliver drug payloads targeted to vascular tissues for anti-angiogenic and anti-restenotic applications and to noninvasively confirm and quantify delivery as well as to follow response to treatment. In canine studies these agents have been demonstrated to target and enhance the MR and ultrasound contrast of intravascular thrombi, and using ex vivo human carotid endarterectomy sections, these results have been extrapolated to human disease where the potential for sensitive detection of microthrombi in the fissures of ruptured plaques is clearly demonstrated. The development of emerging nanotechnology platforms, such as the perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, permits translation of immunohistology techniques from fixed tissue on a slide to live tissue in an animal. These new agents allow biochemical and physiological changes to be studied dynamically in vivo and permit the quest for site-directed therapy to be realized.
Survey and sampling at the classic single-entranced henge monument at Castle Dykes, in North Yorkshire, has revealed traces of circular timber structures, interpreted as later prehistoric roundhouses, in the immediate vicinity and within the henge. Coring of the waterlogged silts of the internal ditch has produced considerable environmental data: plant, insect, pollen and charcoal remains. A small jet bead was also recovered. Radiocarbon dates from short-lived materials unexpectedly indicate that the monument was constructed in the Iron Age, which prompts a review of other potentially Iron Age ‘henges’ further afield.
Changes of structural properties of tobermorite in autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) for various compositions were characterized and the disadvantages of SEM analysis in this context are discussed. The influence of variations in the chemical composition of raw materials on lattice parameters, morphology and domain sizes of tobermorite was investigated by XRD and for comparison by SEM analysis. Particularly the effect of substitution by Al3+ and (SO4)2− in tobermorite structure was examined. The dimensions of coherently scattering domains were calculated based on the refinement of anisotropic peak broadening of tobermorite in XRD diffractograms using a Rietveld compatible approach. No effect of (SO4)2− on the domain sizes and lattice parameters of tobermorite could be observed. The amount of anhydrite detected by quantitative XRD analysis indicates that all of the available (SO4)2− is present as anhydrite. Lath-like shapes of domains and a larger c parameter are calculated whenever Al3+ is incorporated in a considerable amount. Formation of katoite can be observed very clearly in SEM micrographs whenever the amount of available Al3+ exceeds a distinct value in the dry mix. The effect of Al3+ and (SO4)2− on tobermorite morphology could not be observed clearly by SEM analysis in AAC samples.
Grain-rich diets often lead to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) impairing rumen and systemic cattle health. Recent data suggest beneficial effects of a clay mineral (CM)- based product on the rumen microbiome of cattle during SARA. This study sought to investigate whether the CM supplementation can counteract SARA-induced perturbations of the bovine systemic health. The study used an intermittent diet-induced SARA-model with eight dry Holstein cows receiving either no additive as control or CM via concentrates (n=8 per treatment). Cows received first a forage diet (Baseline) for 1 week, followed by a 1-week SARA-challenge (SARA 1), a 1-week recovery phase (Recovery) and finally a second SARA-challenge for 2 weeks (SARA 2). Cows were monitored for feed intake, reticular pH and chewing behavior. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for metabolites related to glucose and lipid metabolism as well as liver health biomarkers. In addition, a targeted electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-MS-based metabolomics approach was carried out on the plasma samples obtained at the end of the Baseline and SARA 1 phase. Data showed that supplementing the cows’ diet with CM improved ruminating chews per regurgitated bolus by 16% in SARA 1 (P=0.01) and enhanced the dry matter intake during the Recovery phase (P=0.05). Moreover, the SARA-induced decreases in several amino acids and phosphatidylcholines were less pronounced in cows receiving CM (P≤0.10). The CM-supplemented cows also had lower concentrations of lactate (P=0.03) and biogenic amines such as histamine and spermine (P<0.01) in the blood. In contrast, the concentration of acylcarnitines with key metabolic functions was increased in the blood of treated cows (P≤0.05). In SARA 2, the CM-cows had lower concentrations of the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase (P<0.05). In conclusion, the data suggest that supplementation of CM holds the potential to alleviate the negative effects of high-grain feeding in cattle by counteracting multiple SARA-induced perturbations in the systemic metabolism and liver health.
Although it is now commonplace for archaeologists to study use-alteration patterns on ceramics, the same cannot be said of one of the most ubiquitous classes of hunter-gatherer artifacts, fire-cracked rocks (FCR). It can be shown, however, that many of the same methods and theories applied to the study of cooking ceramics are also relevant to the investigation of rocks used as heating elements. Because use alteration analyses of FCR are so scarce, I describe a range of attributes with the goal of helping researchers identify use alterations (e.g., sooting, reddening, various fracturing patterns) on lithic artifacts from sites worldwide and evaluate their potential function in various cultural practices. These attributes are also outlined in order to create a standardized terminology for describing FCR use-alteration patterns. I discuss my analysis of FCR from three Late Archaic sites (Duck Lake, 913, and 914) on Grand Island in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, followed by an interpretation of their cooking contexts, as a case study. The results indicate great intersite variability among FCR characteristics, cooking methods, and cooking facilities (earth oven, stone boiling, and rock griddle). This use alteration analysis can be applied in archaeological contexts worldwide where similar materials are recovered.
Critical heart disease in the pediatric population is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Research around the most effective communication and decision-making strategies is lacking. This systematic review aims to summarise what is known about parent preference for communication and decision-making in children with critical heart disease. Database searches included key words such as family, pediatric heart disease, communication, and decision-making. A total of 10 studies fit our inclusion criteria: nine were qualitative studies with parent interviews and one study was quantitative with a parent survey. We found three main themes regarding physician–parent communication and decision-making in the context of paediatric heart disease: (1) amount, timing, and content of information provided to parents; (2) helpful physician characteristics and communication styles; and (3) reinforcing the support circle for families.
Brittle structures exposed in the ablation area of Pasterzenkees, Austria, were interpreted using aerial photographs and maps covering a period of 100 years. The most common structural features observed in aerial photographs are: (1) normal faults, which are particularly well developed along the lateral margins of the glacier and at the terminus; (2) large-scale tension gashes and Riedel shears that develop along the northeastern lateral margin of the glacier and between ice-flow units; (3) thrust faults, which develop at the terminus and cross-cut the full width of the glacier; and (4) band ogives. Longitudinal and transverse topographic profiles are available for the period covered in this study, and ice-flow velocity data are available from 1927. These data provide a means for interpreting the variations of observed structures in terms of ice-flow velocity. Thrust faults predominantly develop during periods of glacier retreat, when the glacier snout becomes an obstacle. Normal faults typically develop in areas of high glacier surface relief and are interpreted as gravity collapse structures. The orientation of sub-vertical, wide open crevasses along the lateral margin of Pasterzenkees varied. These variations are interpreted as reflecting changes of the flow regime and indicate a transition from simple shearing to transtension during a period of ice-flow deceleration.
In this study, the application of (an)isotropic size determination using a recently proposed model for the double-Voigt approach is demonstrated and validated against line profile simulations using the Whole Powder Pattern Modelling approach. The fitting of simulated line profiles demonstrates that the attained crystallite sizes and morphologies are in very reasonable agreement with the simulated values and thus demonstrate that even in routine application scenarios credible size and morphology information can be obtained using the double-Voigt approximation. The aim of this contribution is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the problem, address the practical application of the developed model, and discuss the accuracy of the double-Voigt approach and derived size parameters. Mathematical formulations for the visualization of modeled morphologies, supporting the application of the recently developed macros, are additionally provided.
Landscape geophysical survey around the small upland ‘henge’ at Yarnbury, Grassington, North Yorkshire revealed few anthropogenic features around the enclosure but did identify a small rectangular structure in the same field. Sample trenching of this feature, radiocarbon and archaeomagnetic dating proved it to be an earlier Neolithic post and wattle structure of a type that is being increasingly recognised in Ireland and the west of Britain. It is the first to be recognised in the Yorkshire Dales and it is argued that the Dales may have been pivotal in the Neolithic for east–west trade as well as pastoral upland agriculture.
Haemosporidian parasites infecting birds show distinct heterogeneity in their distribution among host species. However, despite numerous studies on the prevalence and diversity of parasite communities across species, very little is known on patterns of differences between them. Such data is lacking because up to date the majority of studies explored the patterns of variation in infections in different years, different time of sampling within a year or a breeding cycle, different study sites or was based on a small sample size, all of which may affect the estimates of prevalence and parasite diversity. Here, the prevalence, richness and diversity of haemosporidian parasites from the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were studied in two closely related non-migratory hole-nesting passerines: Great Tits and Blue Tits. Birds were sampled in sympatrically breeding populations during two seasons at the same stage of their breeding cycle – late nestling care. Great Tits were more prevalently infected with Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites (97·1 vs 71·2%), harboured a higher proportion of multiple infections (26·2 vs 3·2%) and had a more diverse parasite community (11 vs 5 parasite lineages) than Blue Tits. Observed differences between two host species are discussed with reference to their breeding densities and immunological and behavioural characteristics.
During the past three years the measurement of stellar radial velocities has formed an important part of the spectroscopic programme of most observatories possessing large telescopes. As observations are carried to fainter and fainter stars and the number of observable objects increases rapidly, a natural development has been the selection of special groups and types of stars, the radial velocities of which will aid in the solution of certain specific problems. Illustrations are the studies of the O, B and A type stars made at the Dominion Astrophysical, the Lick, and the Simeis Observatories, of the members of the galactic clusters at the Lick Observatory, and of the fainter Cepheid variables and early-type stars with strong interstellar lines at the Mount Wilson Observatory.
The three years that have elapsed since the Harvard meeting of the Union have witnessed steady progress in the determination of radial velocities. While the three large Pacific Coast Observatories have naturally been able to make the greatest additions to radial velocity work, the Yerkes Observatory, the Simeiz Observatory and the Observatory of the University of Michigan have also made valuable contributions. It is a pleasure to report that there will soon be three major accessions to the list of observatories capable of determining radial velocities. The David Dunlap Observatory of the University of Toronto with its 74-inch telescope, which should be in operation soon after the meeting, will have radial velocities as a prominent feature of its programme. The McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas with an 80-inch telescope now under construction should be ready to commence operations in 1936 and will undertake an extensive radial velocity programme. The Radcliffe Observatory at Oxford has now been granted permission by the Courts to remove to Pretoria, South Africa, and will establish there a 74-inch reflecting telescope, which will also be largely employed in the determination of the urgently needed radial velocities of the southern stars fainter than 5.5 visual magnitude. The Commission may, I believe, congratulate itself that substantial assistance in the preliminary steps leading to this permission of removal was provided by our action at the last meeting in presenting a resolution to the Union, duly passed by the General Assembly, pointing out the urgent need for additional radial velocities in the southern sky, and strongly supporting the project of the Radcliffe Observatory to establish a large telescope at Pretoria.
At the Paris congress in 1935, Messrs Dittrich, Brasch and Pogo had proposed that Commission 5 should undertake the publication of classical works of astronomy (such as Ptolemy’s Almagest, the works of Copernicus, etc.) which were untranslated or for other reasons difficult of access. The commission decided to form a sub-commission, consisting of Mr Stroobant and the gentlemen named above, to study this question, especially the means for its realization. Mr Stroobant had announced his desire to take this work in hand personally. Prof. Stroobant, however, having deceased in July 1936, and his health having been deficient during several months in advance, the sub-commission has not been able to continue its work. This is a question that ought to be taken up at the Stockholm meeting.
M. Mascari a adressé, en vue des assemblées de Leyde (1928) et de Cambridge (Mass.) en 1932, un long rapport contenant les abréviations méthodiques (Transactions of the I. U.A . 3, pp. 19-39 et 4, pp. 21-2). M. Mascari a eu le regret de constater que beaucoup trop souvent, les auteurs ne font pas le plus léger effort pour lutter contre leurs habitudes et se soumettre à une discipline étroite.
M. Grouiller suggère que l’Union publie une liste des abréviations concernant les publications astronomiques proprement dites; quant à celles qui ne renferment que très occasionnellement de l’astronomie, on pourrait toujours rétablir les abréviations en se servant des listes d’abréviations générales déjà publiées par l’Union transactions of the I.U.A. 3, pp. 34-7). En ce qui concerne la bibliographie mensuelle, dirigée actuellement par M. le Comte de la Baume-Pluvinel, M. Grouiller est d’avis que la Commission adopte une motion d’approbation telle que la suivante: “La Commission a appris avec satisfaction la réunion en un seul organe des publications bibliographiques assurées par la Société astronomique de France et l’Association française d’observateurs d’étoiles variables. Elle recommande la continuation de cette publication contrôlée par une commission spéciale représentant ces deux Sociétés.”
The Rosetta Radio Science Investigations (RSI) experiment was selected by the European Space Agency to be included in the International Rosetta Mission to comet P/Wirtanen (launch in 2003, arrival and operational phase at the comet 2011–2013). The RSI science objectives address fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, the gravity field, non-gravitational forces, the size and shape, the internal structure, the composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains and the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux on the orbiter. RSI will make use of the radio subsystem of the Rosetta spacecraft.
The plasma surrounding a comet has the interplanetary magnetic field frozen in. The geometric interpretation of this property is considered. The frozen-in character of the magnetic field leads to the draping of magnetic field lines around the inner coma, where, by exclusion of the inner purely cometary ionosphere, a magnetic cavity is formed inside a region of magnetic field pile-up. The consequences of these physical processes can nicely be diagnosed and tested by interplanetary tangential discontinuities serving as tracers of the magnetoplasma flow. The topology of the magnetic field around the cavity and the shape of the ionopause, as well as the formation of the magnetic tail, are discussed. Particularly in the outer regions, the magnetic field is disturbed by strong magnetic turbulence. This turbulence plays a role in accelerating cometary and also solar wind ions to high energies.