To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Beta radiation from nuclear weapons fallout could pose a risk of cutaneous radiation injury (CRI) to evacuating populations but has been investigated only cursorily. This work examines 2 components of CRI necessary for estimating the potential public health consequences of exposure to fallout: dose protraction and depth of dose.
Dose protraction for dry and moist desquamation was examined by adapting the biological effective dose (BED) calculation to a hazard function calculation similar to those recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements for other acute radiation injuries. Depth of burn was examined using Monte Carlo neutral Particle version 5 to model the penetration of beta radiation from fallout to different skin tissues.
Nonlinear least squares analysis of the BED calculation estimated the hazard function parameter θ1 (dose rate effectiveness factors) as 25.5 and 74.5 (Gy-eq)2 h−1 for dry and moist desquamation, respectively. Depth of dose models revealed that beta radiation is primarily absorbed in the dead skin layers and basal layer and that dose to underlying tissues is small (<5% of dose to basal layer).
The low relative dose to tissues below the basal layer suggests that radiation-induced necrosis or deep skin burns are unlikely from direct skin contamination with fallout. These results enable future modeling studies to better examine CRI risk and facilitate effectively managing and treating populations with specialized injuries from a nuclear detonation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:463-469)
Sialic acid, being a biologically active compound, is recognised as an important component of milk and milk products. Almost all the sialic acid estimation protocols in milk require prior hydrolysis step to release the bound sialic acid followed by its estimation. The objective of this work was to estimate sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetric assay which does not require a prior hydrolysis step thus decreasing the estimation time. The recovery of added sialic acid in milk was 91·6 to 95·8%. Sialic acid in milk was found to be dependent on cattle breed and was in the range of 1·68–3·93 g/kg (dry matter basis). The assay was further extended to detect adulteration of milk with sweet whey which is based on the detection of glycomacropeptide (GMP) bound sialic acid in adulterated milk. GMP is the C-terminal part of κ-casein which is released into the whey during cheese making. For detection of adulteration, selective precipitation of GMP was done using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA concentration in milk was first raised to 5% to precipitate milk proteins, especially κ-casein, followed by raising the TCA concentration to 14% to precipitate out GMP. In the precipitates GMP bound sialic acid was estimated using fluorimetric method and the fluorescence intensity was found to be directly proportional to the level of sweet whey in adulterated milk samples. The method was found to detect the presence of 5% sweet whey in milk.
We show that two-dimensional Si/Ge nanostructures with a thickness of a single atomic layer can be imaged with chemical sensitivity using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). An atomic layer of Bi terminating the surface is used to distinguish between Si and Ge. This distinction between Si and Ge enabled us to fabricate two-dimensional Si/Ge nanostructures in a controlled way by self-organized growth. Si/Ge nanoring structures consisting of alternating Si and Ge rings having a width of ∼5 nm were grown around a Si core on a Si(111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The thickness of the Si and Ge rings is only one atomic layer (0.3 nm). Alternating Si/Ge nanowires with a width of ∼3.5 nm and a thickness of 0.3 nm were also fabricated using alternating Si/Ge deposition in the step flow growth mode.
In the present work, influence of food plants on different life table parameters of the parasitoid Trioxys indicus Subba Rao and Sharma was studied as affected through its host Aphis gossypii Glover. Age-specific survival of T. indicus on aphids bred on Lagenaria vulgaris was greater (7 days) than on Luff a cylindrica and Cucurbita maxima (4 days). The net fecundity rate, total reproductive period, intrinsic rate of natural increase, intrinsic rate of total fecundity and weekly multiplication rate of T. indicus fed on L. vulgaris was higher than on other cucurbit food plants. Doubling time of the parasitoid fed on L. vulgaris was lower than on other food plants, whereas the mean generation time of the parasitoid on L. vulgaris was slightly higher than on L. cylindrica but lower than on Cajanus cajan and C. maxima. All these measurements (considered indices of fitness of the entomophages) indicated that population growth pattern of T. indicus fed on L. vulgaris is faster than those fed on other food plants.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.