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Subspecialisation is increasingly a fundamental part of the contemporary practice of medicine. However, little is known about how medical trainees learn in the modern era, and particularly in growing and relatively new subspecialties, such as adult CHD. The purpose of this study was to assess institutional-led and self-directed learning strategies of adult CHD fellows.
This international, cross-sectional online survey was conducted by the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease and consisted primarily of categorical questions and Likert rating scales. All current or recent (i.e., those within 2 years of training) fellows who reported training in adult CHD (within adult/paediatric cardiology training or within subspecialty fellowships) were eligible.
A total of 75 fellows participated in the survey: mean age: 34 ± 5; 35 (47%) female. Most adult CHD subspecialty fellows considered case-based teaching (58%) as “very helpful”, while topic-based teaching was considered “helpful” (67%); p = 0.003 (favouring case-based). When facing a non-urgent clinical dilemma, fellows reported that they were more likely to search for information online (58%) than consult a faculty member (29%) or textbook (3%). Many (69%) fellows use their smartphones at least once daily to search for information during regular clinical work.
Fellows receiving adult CHD training reported a preference for case-based learning and frequent use of online material and smartphones. These findings may be incorporated into the design and enhancement of fellowships and development of online training resources.
The aim of the study was to describe practices that support collaboration in interprofessional primary health care teams, and identify performance indicators perceived to measure the impact of this collaboration from the perspective of interprofessional health providers.
Despite the surge of interprofessional primary health care models implemented across Canada, there is little evidence as to whether or not the intended outcomes of primary health care teams have been achieved. Part of the challenge is determining the most appropriate measures that can demonstrate the value of collaborative care. To date, little remains known about performance measurement from the providers contributing to the collaborative care process in interprofessional primary care teams. Having providers from a range of disciplinary backgrounds assist in the development of performance measures can help identify measures most relevant to demonstrate the value of collaborative care on the intended outcomes of interprofessional primary care models.
A qualitative study; part of a larger mixed methods developmental evaluation to examine performance measurement in interprofessional primary health care teams. A stakeholder workshop was conducted at an annual association meeting of interprofessional primary health care teams in the province of Ontario, Canada. Six questions guided the workshop groups and participant responses were documented on worksheets and flip charts. All responses were collected and entered verbatim into a word document. Qualitative analytic strategies were applied to each question.
A total of 283 primary health care providers from 14 health professions working in interprofessional primary health care teams participated. Top three elements of interprofessional collaboration (total n = 628) were communication (n = 146), co-treatment (n = 112) and patient-based conferences (n = 81). Top three performance indicators currently used to demonstrate the value of interprofessional collaboration (total n = 241) were patient experience (n = 71), patient health status (n = 35) and within team referrals (n = 30).
The term hypoxic encephalopathy (HE) refers to a syndrome of global brain injury resulting from critical reduction or loss of blood flow and supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Synonyms used to describe this clinical entity include hypoxic-ischemic or anoxic encephalopathy and postcardiac-arrest brain injury, among others. Most cases of HE can be attributed to complications during the perinatal period in children, and in adults HE mostly results from cardiac arrest or asphyxia, with approximately half a million cases per year of HE in the United States . Hypoxic encephalopathy is one of the most important and devastating clinical manifestations of the postcardiac-arrest syndrome (PCAS) characterized mainly by postcardiac-arrest brain injury, myocardial dysfunction, and a systemic ischemia-reperfusion response . This chapter will cover the initial postresuscitation care, therapeutic hypothermia, and critical care management, as well as prognostication of neurologic outcomes of hypoxic encephalopathy in adults.
Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is associated with CVD and is mainly genetically determined. Studies suggest a role of dietary fatty acids (FA) in the regulation of Lp(a); however, no studies have investigated the association between plasma Lp(a) concentration and n-6 FA. We aimed to investigate whether plasma Lp(a) concentration was associated with dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA) in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We included FH subjects with (n 68) and without (n 77) elevated Lp(a) defined as ≥75 nmol/l and healthy subjects (n 14). Total FA profile was analysed by GC–flame ionisation detector analysis, and the daily intake of macronutrients (including the sum of n-6 FA: 18 : 2n-6, 20 : 2n-6, 20 : 3n-6 and 20 : 4n-6) were computed from completed FFQ. FH subjects with elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with FH subjects without elevated Lp(a) (P = 0·03). Furthermore, both FH subjects with and without elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with controls (P < 0·001). The multivariable analyses showed associations between dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of AA (P = 0·02) and between plasma levels of Lp(a) and AA (P = 0·006). Our data suggest a novel link between plasma Lp(a) concentration, dietary n-6 FA and plasma AA concentration, which may explain the small diet-induced increase in Lp(a) levels associated with lifestyle changes. Although the increase may not be clinically relevant, this association may be mechanistically interesting in understanding more of the role and regulation of Lp(a).
A first exploration is conducted to what the French biological philosophy of technology perspective has to offer to the field of design methodology. If this French perspective is combined with contemporary speculative pragmatism a generative design methodology emerges offering novelty in what is sensed as important in a design situation. Within this perspective, drawing upon the late French philosopher Gilbert Simondon, technical objects have their own mode of existence and their own trajectory of development apart from human intention.
Designers working with such a generative design methodology follow the constitutive value of openness and attune to the regulative value of techno-aesthetic judgments. By way of a 'vignette+', a paradigmatic example from a real case, a more encompassing argument is made towards design situations where a sophisticated machine is 'inserted' into a domestic setting.
The example taken is the use of an artificial kidney machine in a domestic setting and the development of a novel machine with a design team. Four aspects were sensed as important in the unfolding design situation and directions for further research are discussed.
This study attempts to strike a balance to measure primary care quality in a way that considers what is important to patients, providers and the healthcare system, all at the same time.
The interest in delivering patient-centered primary care implies a need for patient-centered performance measurement. However, the distinction between measures of patient experience and technical aspects of care raises an unanswerable question: if a provider has good performance on technical measures but not on patient experience measures (or vice versa), what can be said about the quality of care?
We surveyed patients to determine the relative priorities of each of a series of primary care measures in the patients’ relationship with their primary care provider. The on-line survey was co-designed with patient co-investigators. The items consisted of 14 primary care quality measures used in pre-existing performance report, 41 additional indicators including a novel set of patient-generated Key Performance Indicators and 17 questions about patients’ demographics, health and socioeconomic status as well as open-ended questions.
Despite challenges, the study suggests that this is feasible. We argue that it is necessary to get better at measuring and finding ever-better ways to put patients at the center of primary care
Here we report on a newly collected, well-preserved vertebral centrum of a plesiosaur from the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage in southern Limburg. The specimen is interpreted as a caudal vertebra that originated from an osteologically immature or juvenile individual, as evidenced by the position of the pedicular facets, the presence of a notochord pit and the absence of fused neural arches. It adds to the meagre record of sauropterygians in the area.
To reduce the of risk infection after colorectal surgery, oral antibiotic preparation (OAP) and mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) can be applied. Whether OAP can be used without MBP is unclear. A meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrated comparable effectiveness of OAP with and without MBP regarding SSI risk.
Compulsory admission is commonly regarded as necessary and justified for patients whose psychiatric condition represents a severe danger to themselves and others. However, while studies on compulsory admissions have reported on various clinical and social outcomes, little research has focused specifically on dangerousness, which in many countries is the core reason for compulsory admission.
To study changes in dangerousness over time in adult psychiatric patients admitted by compulsory court order, and to relate these changes to these patients' demographic and clinical characteristics.
In this explorative prospective observational cohort study of adult psychiatric patients admitted by compulsory court order, demographic and clinical data were collected at baseline. At baseline and at 6 and 12 month follow-up, dangerousness was assessed using the Dangerousness Inventory, an instrument based on the eight types of dangerousness towards self or others specified in Dutch legislation on compulsory admissions. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to analyse the data.
We included 174 participants with a court-ordered compulsory admission. At baseline, the most common dangerousness criterion was inability to cope in society. Any type of severe or very severe dangerousness decreased from 86.2% at baseline to 36.2% at 6 months and to 28.7% at 12 months. Being homeless at baseline was the only variable which was significantly associated with persistently high levels of dangerousness.
Dangerousness decreased in about two-thirds of the patients after court-ordered compulsory admission. It persisted, however, in a substantial minority (approximately one-third).
Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) is important for infection control and is usually performed through retrospective manual chart review. The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the surveillance of deep SSIs based on clinical variables to enhance efficiency of surveillance.
Retrospective cohort study (2012–2015).
A Dutch teaching hospital.
We included all consecutive patients who underwent colorectal surgery excluding those with contaminated wounds at the time of surgery. All patients were evaluated for deep SSIs through manual chart review, using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria as the reference standard.
We used logistic regression modeling to identify predictors that contributed to the estimation of diagnostic probability. Bootstrapping was applied to increase generalizability, followed by assessment of statistical performance and clinical implications.
In total, 1,606 patients were included, of whom 129 (8.0%) acquired a deep SSI. The final model included postoperative length of stay, wound class, readmission, reoperation, and 30-day mortality. The model achieved 68.7% specificity and 98.5% sensitivity and an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.950 (95% CI, 0.932–0.969). Positive and negative predictive values were 21.5% and 99.8%, respectively. Applying the algorithm resulted in a 63.4% reduction in the number of records requiring full manual review (from 1,606 to 590).
This 5-parameter model identified 98.5% of patients with a deep SSI. The model can be used to develop semiautomatic surveillance of deep SSIs after colorectal surgery, which may further improve efficiency and quality of SSI surveillance.
Despite the high prevalence of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among patients with psychiatric conditions, detection rates are low. Limited knowledge and skills on DVA in mental healthcare (MHC) professionals might contribute to poor identification.
To assess the level of, and factors associated with, DVA knowledge and skills among MHC professionals.
A total of 278 professionals in Dutch MHC institutions completed a survey assessing factual knowledge, perceived knowledge, perceived skills and attitudes about DVA.
On average, low scores were reported for perceived skills and knowledge. MHC professionals in primary care scored higher than those working with individuals with severe mental illness (P<0.005). Levels of factual knowledge were higher; levels of attitudes moderate. Previous training was positively associated with skills (odds ratios (OR) = 3.0) and attitudes (OR = 2.7). Years of work was negatively associated with factual knowledge (OR = 0.97). Larger case-loads predicted higher scores on skills (OR = 2.1).
Training is needed, particularly for clinicians working with patients with severe mental illness.
The role of diet on breast cancer risk is not well elucidated but animal food sources may play a role through, for example, the pathway of the insulin-like growth factor 1 system or cholesterol metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between animal foods and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. This study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of subjects aged 55 years and over (61 % female). Dietary intake of different animal foods was assessed at baseline using a validated FFQ and adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. We performed Cox proportional hazards modelling to analyse the association between the intake of the different food sources and breast cancer risk after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. During a median follow-up of 17 years, we identified 199 cases of breast cancer (6·2 %) among 3209 women. After adjustment for multiple confounders, no consistent association was found between the intake of red meat intake, poultry, fish or dairy products and breast cancer risk. However, we found that egg intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratioQ4 v. Q1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·20, 2·79; Ptrend=0·01). In conclusion, this study found that dietary egg intake but no other animal foods was associated with a higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Further research on the potential mechanisms underlying this association is warranted.
To investigate the effects of friendly competition on hand hygiene compliance as part of a multimodal intervention program.
Prospective observational study in which the primary outcome was hand hygiene compliance. Differences were analyzed using the Pearson χ2 test. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval were calculated using multilevel logistic regression.
Observations were performed in 9 public hospitals and 1 rehabilitation center in Rotterdam, Netherlands.
From 2014 to 2016, at 5 time points (at 6-month intervals) in 120 hospital wards, 20,286 hand hygiene opportunities were observed among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare workers (HCWs).
The multimodal, friendly competition intervention consisted of mandatory interventions: monitoring and feedback of hand hygiene compliance and optional interventions (ie, e-learning, kick-off workshop, observer training, and team training). Hand hygiene opportunities, as formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO), were unobtrusively observed at 5 time points by trained observers. Compliance data were presented to the healthcare organizations as a ranking.
The overall mean hand hygiene compliance at time point 1 was 42.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.4–44.4), which increased to 51.4% (95% CI, 49.8–53.0) at time point 5 (P<.001). Nurses showed a significant improvement between time points 1 and 5 (P<.001), whereas the compliance of physicians and other HCWs remained unchanged. In the multilevel logistic regressions, time points, type of ward, and type of HCW showed a significant association with compliance.
Between the start and the end of the multimodal intervention program in a friendly competition setting, overall hand hygiene compliance increased significantly.
The extent to which exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse increases the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood is currently unclear.
To examine the relationship between childhood sexual and physical abuse and psychotic experiences in adulthood taking into account potential confounding and time-dynamic covariate factors.
Data were from a cohort of 1265 participants studied from birth to 35 years. At ages 18 and 21, cohort members were questioned about childhood sexual and physical abuse. At ages 30 and 35, they were questioned about psychotic experiences (symptoms of abnormal thought and perception). Generalised estimating equation models investigated covariation of the association between abuse exposure and psychotic experiences including potential confounding factors in childhood (socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse family functioning) and time-dynamic covariate factors (mental health, substance use and life stress).
Data were available for 962 participants; 6.3% had been exposed to severe sexual abuse and 6.4% to severe physical abuse in childhood. After adjustment for confounding and time-dynamic covariate factors, those exposed to severe sexual abuse had rates of abnormal thought and abnormal perception symptoms that were 2.25 and 4.08 times higher, respectively than the ‘no exposure’ group. There were no significant associations between exposure to severe physical abuse and psychotic experiences.
Findings indicate that exposure to severe childhood sexual (but not physical) abuse is independently associated with an increased risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood (particularly symptoms of abnormal perception) and this association could not be fully accounted for by confounding or time-dynamic covariate factors.