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The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.
The aim of this study was to examine social network characteristics and social support (emotional and instrumental support) and to determine how those factors differed between relocating older adults and nonrelocating older adults who were affected by the 2015 flood in South Carolina.
Twenty-five community-dwelling elderly (CDE) were interviewed between December 2015 and May 2016 to learn about their experiences in the immediate aftermath of the flood. Ego-centric network data were collected with a focus on social network members and the types of flood-related support that these network members provided.
Ten of 25 CDE relocated because of the flood. All CDE were more likely to receive social support from female network members and family members than from other acquaintances. Relocating CDE received significantly less emotional support in comparison to nonrelocating CDE. The odds of receiving instrumental support were higher, but nonsignificant, among relocating CDE in comparison to nonrelocating CDE.
The findings around the support provision are concerning particularly because of the additional psychological burden that relocation can place on flood-affected, older adults. Recommendations for public health preparedness strategies are provided in addition to future research directions for examining the well-being of flood-affected, older adults.
An essential resource for practitioners in infectious diseases and microbiology, studying for the new FRCPath Part 1 infection examination accredited by the Royal College of Pathologists, and trainees sitting the membership exams of the Royal College of Physicians. Including over 300 multiple choice questions in an exam-style Q&A format, this guide provides an invaluable revision platform for domestic and international trainees alike, with scope to present infection-based support for other medical specialties, where infection forms a core component, including intensive care. Authored by leading specialists in infectious diseases and microbiology, this invaluable training guide is the first of its kind to cover both undergraduate and postgraduate material in infectious diseases. Mapping directly from the FRCPath and RCP infection curricula, students are able to explore areas of curriculum to gain knowledge and optimise decision-making skills, under pressure.
This paper examines the misalignment between modern human society and certain male phenotypes, a misalignment that has been highlighted and explored in great detail in the work of Tom Dishion. We begin by briefly enumerating the ongoing developmental difficulties of many boys and young men and how these difficulties affect them and those around them. We then suggest that the qualities that have been advantageous for men and their families in our earlier evolution but that are often no longer functional in modern society are a source of these problems. Finally, we provide a brief review of prevention programs that can contribute to preventing this type of problematic development and eliciting more prosocial behavior from at-risk boys and men. We conclude with an overview of research and policy priorities that could contribute to reducing the proportion of boys and young men who experience developmental difficulties in making their way in the world.
Recent comparisons between classical Wagner theory for the impact of two liquid droplets and direct numerical simulations in Cimpeanu & Moore (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 856, 2018, pp. 764–796) show that, in some regimes, the inviscid theory over-predicts the thickness of the root of the splash jet that forms in the impact, while also struggling to predict the angle at which the jet is emitted. The effect of capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows was investigated in a previous study, see Moore et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 742, 2014, R1). However, the paper in question ignored a term in the second-order perturbation analysis, which needs to be included in order to predict the displacement of the inviscid free boundary to lowest order. In this paper, we derive a singular integro-differential equation for the free-surface perturbations caused by viscosity in Helmholtz flows and discuss its application both in the context of Wagner theory and more generally. In particular, viscosity can induce non-monotonic behaviour in the free boundary profiles near points of maximum curvature.
Psychologists have identified multiple different forms of conflict, such as information processing conflict and goal conflict. As such, there is a need to examine the similarities and differences in neurology between each form of conflict. To address this, we conducted a comprehensive electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis of Shadli, Glue, McIntosh, and McNaughton’s calibrated stop-signal task (SST) goal-conflict task. Specifically, we examined changes in scalp-wide current source density (CSD) power and coherence across a wide range of frequency bands during the calibrated SST (n = 34). We assessed differences in EEG between the high and low goal-conflict conditions using hierarchical analyses of variance (ANOVAs). We also related goal-conflict EEG to trait anxiety, neuroticism, Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS)-anxiety and revised BIS (rBIS) using regression analyses. We found that changes in CSD power during goal conflict were limited to increased midfrontocentral theta. Conversely, coherence increased across 23 scalp-wide theta region pairs and one frontal delta region pair. Finally, scalp-wide theta significantly predicted trait neuroticism but not trait anxiety, BIS-anxiety or rBIS. We conclude that goal conflict involves increased midfrontocentral CSD theta power and scalp-wide theta-dominated coherence. Therefore, compared with information processing conflict, goal conflict displays a similar EEG power profile of midfrontocentral theta but a much wider coherence profile. Furthermore, the increases in theta during goal conflict are the characteristic of BIS-driven activity. Therefore, future research should confirm whether these goal-conflict effects are driven by the BIS by examining whether the effects are attenuated by anxiolytic drugs. Overall, we have identified a unique network of goal-conflict EEG during the calibrated SST.
This article is interested in the general question of what justifies territorial rights over unoccupied places, including places that are not occupied but are situated within the territorial borders of a state. This question arises because one of the most common defenses of rights over territory makes use of the idea of occupancy and has difficulty explaining such rights in places that are not occupied. It explores this question through an examination of the claims and arguments in the Canadian Arctic, which provides an historically specific test case for the merits and plausibility of the various arguments appealed to. It argues that territorial rights in unoccupied places, including the Canadian Arctic, are justified on different grounds than in occupied parts of the territory, and that the justification also affects the kinds of rights—particularly over resources—that such states can claim.
This book is an exploration of categories, constructions, and change in English syntax. A great many books are published on the syntax of English, both monographs and edited volumes, and yet another may seem unnecessary. However, we felt more than justified in adding to the sizeable literature here for two reasons. The first, to borrow from Richard M. Hogg and David Denison’s justification for A History of the English Language, is that ‘one of the beauties of the language is its ability to show continuous change and flexibility while in some sense remaining the same.