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Little is known about the types of intestinal parasites that infected people living in prehistoric Britain. The Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Must Farm was a pile-dwelling settlement located in a wetland, consisting of stilted timber structures constructed over a slow-moving freshwater channel. At excavation, sediment samples were collected from occupation deposits around the timber structures. Fifteen coprolites were also hand-recovered from the occupation deposits; four were identified as human and seven as canine, using fecal lipid biomarkers. Digital light microscopy was used to identify preserved helminth eggs in the sediment and coprolites. Eggs of fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum), Echinostoma sp., giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale), probable pig whipworm (Trichuris suis) and Capillaria sp. were found. This is the earliest evidence for fish tapeworm, Echinostoma worm, Capillaria worm and the giant kidney worm so far identified in Britain. It appears that the wetland environment of the settlement contributed to establishing parasite diversity and put the inhabitants at risk of infection by helminth species spread by eating raw fish, frogs or molluscs that flourish in freshwater aquatic environments, conversely the wetland may also have protected them from infection by certain geohelminths.
What are the effects of wearable police cameras on perceptions of the police? In this study, we report causal estimates from a crossover randomized controlled trial in Uruguay on the effects of use of body-worn cameras by traffic police on the perceptions of legitimacy and satisfaction by drivers ticketed for traffic violations. We pay particular attention to the effects on procedural justice—that is, perceptions of the fairness of the interactions between officers and drivers—without neglecting other features of legitimacy (i.e., effectiveness, distributive justice, and lawfulness). With the exception of lawfulness, wearable surveillance apparatuses showed improvements across all dimensions of legitimacy compared to control conditions, with medium to large effect sizes. The overall satisfaction from the police-public interaction was significantly higher when officers used body-worn cameras. These findings suggest that wearable surveillance technology can lead to enhanced perceptions of legitimacy across multiple dimensions, not just increased efficiency, as well as the perceived overall quality of police-public interaction.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a low-frequency Square Kilometre Array precursor located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. Primarily designed as an imaging telescope, but with a flexible signal path, the capabilities of this telescope have recently been extended to include off-line incoherent and tied-array beam formation using recorded antenna voltages. This has provided the capability for high-time and frequency resolution observations, including a pulsar science program. This paper describes the algorithms and pipeline that we have developed to form the tied-array beam products from the summation of calibrated signals of the antenna elements, and presents example polarimetric profiles for PSRs J0437-4715 and J1900-2600 at 185 MHz.
To review the literature regarding screening for vestibular schwannoma in the context of demographic changes leading to increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with asymmetric auditory symptoms.
A systematic review of the literature was performed, with narrative synthesis and statistical analysis of data where appropriate.
Vestibular schwannomas diagnosed in patients aged over 70 years exhibit slower growth patterns and tend to be of smaller size compared to those tumours in younger age groups. This fact, combined with reduced life expectancy, renders the probability of these tumours in the elderly requiring active treatment with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy to be extremely low. Vestibular schwannomas in the elderly are much more likely to be managed by serial monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging. The weighted yield of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma in all age groups is 1.18 per cent, with almost 85 scans required to diagnose 1 tumour.
An evidence-based approach to the investigation of asymmetric hearing loss and tinnitus in the elderly patient can be used to formulate guidelines for the rational use of magnetic resonance imaging in this population.
Throughout his long and celebrated literary career, and as one of this country’s most preeminent black writers and public intellectuals of the civil rights era, James Baldwin consistently returned to the American South as a central geographical and imaginative space in which to explore issues. In a 1963 interview with psychologist and civil rights activist Kenneth B. Clark, James Baldwin famously said: “I am, in all but in technical legal fact, a Southerner. My father was born in the South—My mother was born in the South and if they had waited two more seconds I might have been born in the South. But that means I was raised by families whose roots were essentially southern rural and whose relationship to the church was very direct because it was the only means they had of expressing their pain and despair.”
Prevention of central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) represents a complex challenge for the teams involved in device insertion and maintenance. First-tier practices for CLABSI prevention are well established.
We describe second-tier prevention practices in Israeli medical-surgical ICUs and assess their association with CLABSI rates.
In June 2017, an online survey assessing infection prevention practices in general ICUs was sent to all Israeli acute-care hospitals. The survey comprised 14 prevention measures supplementary to the established measures that are standard of care for CLABSI prevention. These measures fall into 2 domains: technology and implementation. The association between the number of prevention measures and CLABSI rate during the first 6 months of 2017 was assessed using Spearman’s correlation. We used negative binomial regression to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the overall number of prevention measures and with each measure individually.
The CLABSI rates in 24 general ICUs varied between 0.0 and 17.0 per 1,000 central-line days. Greater use of preventive measures was associated with lower CLABSI rates (ρ, –0.70; P < .001). For each additional measure, the incidence of CLABSI decreased by 19% (IRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73–0.89). Specific measures associated with lower rates were involvement of ward champions (IRR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31–0.71), auditing of insertions by infection control staff (IRR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19–0.64), and simulation-based training (IRR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.22–0.64).
Implementation of second-tier preventive practices was protective against CLABSI. Use of more practices was correlated with lower rates.
To understand why autistic people are misperceived in the way Jaswal & Akhtar suggest, we should embrace concepts like the “double empathy problem” and camouflaging and recognize the negative consequences these have for mental health in autism. Moreover, we need to value expertise from experience so that autistic people have a voice and indeed a stake in research into autism.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
The Southern African Radiocarbon Database (SARD) is a new online, open-access database of published radiocarbon dates from southern African archaeological contexts. Compatible with the calibration, Bayesian modelling and mapping functionality of the OxCal software, the SARD will greatly assist in the documentation and analysis of chronological trends across the subcontinent. This article introduces the database and presents two case studies that demonstrate its utility and its integration with OxCal, comparing the temporal distribution of radiocarbon dates in two archaeologically well-investigated regions, and assessing the timing of Middle to Later Stone Age technological developments across the African subcontinent.
Ice scallops are a small-scale (5–20 cm) quasi-periodic ripple pattern that occurs at the ice–water interface. Previous work has suggested that scallops form due to a self-reinforcing interaction between an evolving ice-surface geometry, an adjacent turbulent flow field and the resulting differential melt rates that occur along the interface. In this study, we perform a series of laboratory experiments in a refrigerated flume to quantitatively investigate the mechanisms of scallop formation and evolution in high resolution. Using particle image velocimetry, we probe an evolving ice–water boundary layer at sub-millimetre scales and 15 Hz frequency. Our data reveal three distinct regimes of ice–water interface evolution: a transition from flat to scalloped ice; an equilibrium scallop geometry; and an adjusting scallop interface. We find that scalloped-ice geometry produces a clear modification to the ice–water boundary layer, characterized by a time-mean recirculating eddy feature that forms in the scallop trough. Our primary finding is that scallops form due to a self-reinforcing feedback between the ice-interface geometry and shear production of turbulent kinetic energy in the flow interior. The length of this shear production zone is therefore hypothesized to set the scallop wavelength.
Ocular complaints prompt a significant number of emergency department (ED) visits, and they can range from benign to sight-threatening. Detailed fundoscopic examination is difficult, even for experienced providers. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is increasingly utilized in the ED for numerous applications, including ocular evaluation. We present a case in which ocular POCUS was used to diagnose a submacular hemorrhage in a patient who presented with acute painless loss of vision. Ocular POCUS can be readily employed to assess for myriad clinically significant pathologies.
A LOT OF thought goes into what we sit on. From the design of the office chair to the cafe bench, kitchen stool, or couch where we watch television. For consumers, even more thought goes into what we sit on when we fly. Either domestic or international, we all have ourpreferences. Starting with which airline, then the location within the aeroplane—either up front or behind the wing. Finally, our preference for aisle or window, but never choosing a middle seat. Choice matters and can influence passengers to pay more than an economy fare. Design also plays a part and can affect a consumer's experience when flying. Good design can also play a role in linking innovation and the commercial success of products and services. Airplane seating is no exception.
Less thought goes into understanding the importance of design. Qantas Airlines Australia, however, recognized the importance of design and equally its protection and with the inception of the Skybed, it changed the perception of international business-class travel and what it means to fly. Design played a key role and created a consumer experience that was more functionally efficient and more aesthetically pleasing. The Qantas Skybed is an illustrative example of the unseen connections between industry, designer, consumer experience and design law.
In 2001, Qantas approached Marc Newson, a designer famous for his Lockheed Lounge and Embryo chair, to create a new business-class seat. The seat would need to recline and produce a flat bed. Qantas knew what drove customers to choose business class: comfort, privacy, and flexibility. The Newson seat would achieve all this, but also create a new sense of space for passengers either while working, relaxing, sleeping, or being entertained. Newson designed a retro-futuristic business-class seat with a sculpted carbon fibre back shell. Although not the first flatbed business-class seat—British Airways introduced the first in 1999—the Skybed was the longest at two meters fully reclined. The innovative design went on to win the Good Design Award from the Chicago Athenaeum Museum in 2003 and, a year later, an Australian Design Award. Following the successful launch and acclaim of the Skybed, Qantas asked Marc Newson back to redesign the entire cabin interior of Qantas’ new A380 fleet. To Qantas, the Skybed was the crown jewel of a $385 million modernization process.