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Sea cucumbers play a critical role in maintaining healthy marine ecosystems. Sea cucumbers are also a key source of income for millions of small-scale fishers worldwide. The lucrative nature of this industry has led to severe reductions in sea cucumber populations in numerous regions globally. A large proportion of sea cucumber fisheries are located in developing countries, which present unique challenges to management, including addressing highly decentralized methods of extraction and processing, limited economic and technological resources for governance and, in many cases, a high dependency on sea cucumbers as a primary source of income for small-scale coastal fishers. In this review, we review the benefits and challenges of seven categories of sea cucumber management strategies used globally in developing countries, including gear restrictions, size and weight limits, effort and catch controls, temporal closures, area closures, value chain licensing and territorial use rights in fisheries. We conclude that sea cucumber management in developing countries could benefit from focusing regulatory solutions on narrowed parts of the value chain, coupling production-based management strategies with processing and export regulations and providing avenues for local fishers to inform policy at the local, regional and national levels.
The so-called ‘catalogue of tribes’ in Corippus, Iohannis, II.28–161 is central to the historical ethnography of Moorish North Africa in Late Antiquity, yet the sources behind this passage and its poetic function have never been directly addressed. The present paper argues that Corippus derived this material from the trophies carried in the triumphal procession that marked the successful conclusion of John Troglita's campaigns in 548. The evocation of this ceremony at the outset of Corippus’ narrative corresponds to the ironic tone which permeates the work, but also explains the eccentric form of the material included within the catalogue. The paper concludes with some observations about the implications of this for modern understanding of Moorish ‘tribal’ society in the later Roman and early Byzantine period.
Of the various kinds of singing games played by children, the handclapping game is practised with great vigor by young girls on the schoolyards of Los Angeles, California. This paper looks at five handclapping games representative of a collection made at three locations in the city, from three predominant ethnocultural groups: Afro-American, Euro-American and Latino. The five examples were chosen to illustrate what seem to me to be broader trends in tradition and innovation. The repertoire consists of both old and new games, with the old often modified in some way and the new invented out of a contemporary urban musical environment. For sources, children may turn to television, particularly musical commercials, which they then adapt to the requirements of a handclapping game. In my observation of children's games over a ten year period, I have been intrigued by the relationship between games and sex roles, and what is called “role-modeling,” which appear in the text and the structure of a game.
Robert Burns's A Theory of the Trial offers a fresh, subtle, and erudite analysis of the Anglo American trial, one that subjects the insights of current scholarship on trials (both legal and sociolegal) to the rigors of a philosophically trained mind long-steeped in trial practice. At once wide ranging and tightly focused, the richness of this book lies in the seriousness with which Burns offers a “careful, attentive description, ideally without presuppositions, of what we actually do” in order to identify the “spirit” of the trial as a human practice (Burns 1999, 4). Like Poe's hero Dupin in “The Purloined Letter,” who recovers a stolen letter slyly “hidden” out in the open in a barely disguised envelope, Burns looks with a discerning eye beyond the “received view” of the trial as a forum for actualizing the rule of law in the context of specific factual disputes (Burns 1999, 11), and suggests that the essence of the trial lies in its linguistic practices—an essence that, as Poe puts it, “escape[s] observation by dint of being excessively obvious” (1984,694).
Objectives: Prior studies have found associations between visual acuity (VA) and cognitive function. However, these studies used a limited range of cognitive measures and did not control for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD-RFs) and baseline function. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the associations of VA and cognitive performance using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Methods: This study used community-dwelling sample data across the sixth (2001–2006) and seventh (2006–2010) waves of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (n=655). Wave 6 VA as measured by the Snellen Eye Test was the primary predictor of wave 6 and wave 7 Global cognitive performance, Visual-Spatial Organization and Memory, Verbal Episodic Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, and Executive Function. Additionally, VA was used to predict longitudinal changes in wave 7 cognitive performance (wave 6 performance adjusted). We analyzed these relationships with multiple linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, ethnicity, depressive symptoms, physical function deficits in addition to CVD-RFs, chronic kidney disease, homocysteine, continuous systolic blood pressure, and hypertension status. Results: Adjusted for demographic covariates and CVD-RFs, poorer VA was associated with concurrent and approximate 5-year declines in Global cognitive function, Visual-Spatial Organization and Memory, and Verbal Episodic Memory. Discussion: VA may be used in combination with other screening measures to determine risk for cognitive decline. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1–9)
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Prevention or containment of risk factors that accelerate atherosclerosis can delay the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although current recommendations are to periodically screen for commonly prevailing risk factors for atherosclerosis in children, a single test that could quantify the cumulative effect of all risk factors on the vasculature, thus assessing arterial health, would be helpful in further stratifying risk. Measurement of pulse wave velocity and assessment of augmentation index – measures of arterial stiffness – are easy-to-use, non-invasive methods of examining arterial health. Various studies have assessed pulse wave velocity and augmentation index in children with commonly occurring conditions including obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, physical inactivity, chronic kidney disease, CHD and acquired heart diseases, and in children who were born premature or small for gestational age. This article summarises pulse wave velocity and augmentation index assessments and the effects of commonly prevailing chronic conditions on arterial health in children. In addition, currently available reference values for pulse wave velocity and augmentation index in healthy children are included. Further research to establish widely applicable normative values and the effect of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on arterial health in children is needed.
This article compares Tomáš Bata's development of Zlín as a company town with the architectural theory of Karel Teige. Despite political differences— Bat’a was a champion of “American” capitalism, Teige a leader of the leftist avant-garde—they had unexpectedly similar ideas about architectural design and city planning. The article uses James C. Scott's definition of high modernism as a starting point to explain these commonalities, historically contextualizing the two men's thinking as a specific iteration of this ideology. Both, for instance, paradoxically sought to incorporate liberal, democratic values (typical of the rhetoric of state building in interwar Czechoslovakia) into their authoritarian plans. This analysis helps explain subsequent, socialist architectural developments, in which Teige's theory and Bat’a's practices were combined. In this, the article contributes to an understanding of Czechoslovakia's post-1948 cultural history not in terms of impositions from Moscow, but as building on native institutions.
Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness.
New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members.
Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted.
One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary organizations (73%) and less likely with local death care sector organizations (27%) or Departments of Health (DOHs; 32%).
The study suggests improvements are needed in terms of staff training in general, and specifically, drills with planning partners are needed. Greater cooperation and inclusion of FBOs in national planning and training will likely benefit overall MFI preparedness in the US.
The reference of disputes to international political institutions has a history as long as that of arbitration. For present purposes, however, it is unnecessary to go further back than 1919, when, with the creation of the League of Nations as a reaction to the First World War, the first attempt was made to establish a universal organisation with broad responsibilities in this area. Following the failure of the League, or more accurately its member states, to take effective action to forestall a second bloodbath, a fresh effort to bring disputes within the field of operations of a world organisation was made with the creation of the United Nations Organization in 1945.
The purposes of the United Nations, as set out in Article 1 of the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to achieve international co-operation in solving problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character and in promoting human rights; and to be a centre for harmonising the actions of states in attaining these ends. Of these interrelated purposes, the maintenance of international peace and security occupies the primary place. Here, according to the Charter, the Organization has two distinct responsibilities: to bring about cessation of armed conflict whenever it occurs, and to assist the parties to international disputes to settle their differences by peaceful means. The scope of the Organization's powers in this second area, the ways in which they are exercised in practice and the effectiveness of the United Nations’ contribution are the subject of this chapter.
Machinery of the Organization
There are three organs of the United Nations with principal roles to play in the peaceful settlement of disputes: the Security Council, the General Assembly and the Secretariat.
The Security Council's powers derive from Chapter VI of the Charter, which is wholly concerned with the pacific settlement of disputes. Apart from Article 38, which entitles the Council to make recommendations with a view to the settlement of any dispute if all the parties so request, its competence is limited to disputes ‘the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security’. It is therefore clear that, although Article 2(3) imposes a general obligation on member states to settle disputes by peaceful means, only the more serious disputes, or those which have become serious, are regarded as the Council's concern.