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Since the collapse of the housing market in 2008, demand for housing has consistently outpaced supply in many US communities. The failure to construct sufficient housing - especially affordable housing - in desirable communities and neighborhoods comes with significant social, economic, and environmental costs. This book examines how local participatory land use institutions amplify the power of entrenched interests and privileged homeowners. The book draws on sweeping data to examine the dominance of land use politics by 'neighborhood defenders' - individuals who oppose new housing projects far more strongly than their broader communities and who are likely to be privileged on a variety of dimensions. Neighborhood defenders participate disproportionately and take advantage of land use regulations to restrict the construction of multifamily housing. The result is diminished housing stock and higher housing costs, with participatory institutions perversely reproducing inequality.
Cognitive Gadgets offers a new, convincing perspective on the origins of our distinctive cognitive faculties, coupled with a clear, innovative research program. Although we broadly endorse Heyes’ ideas, we raise some concerns about her characterisation of evolutionary psychology and the relationship between biology and culture, before discussing the potential fruits of examining cognitive gadgets through the lens of active inference.
It is a Thursday afternoon late in the semester. A group of students is working through the final pages of Die Maßnahme (The Measures Taken). Four, scripts in hand—in this session taking the parts of the Agitators—are in the center of the small studio, spaced in a gentle, irregular arc, facing another seven students seated behind a handful of trestle tables: the Control Chorus. All are wearing their street clothes: the usual student assortment of jeans, t-shirts, casual shoes. A careful, animated discussion unfolds as the group negotiates the staging of the appropriate Gestus for the scene to come. I lean against a wall to one side, trying to be as unobtrusive as possible. The students are cautious, heedful of the—my own—often-repeated injunction against falling into representational formalism. They avoid obviously “geometric” choices, working against forced symmetries, trying instead to capture nuance of status and alliances, of shifting negotiations among the various characters. They have worked already to differentiate the Agitators, endowing each with a distinct attitude to the events they are restaging, as well as to the Party apparatchiks for whom they are presenting the account of the death of their Young Comrade. Similarly, the members of the Control Chorus adopt a range of attitudes, experimented with and refined over the preceding weeks as the class has rotated through the various roles. Some lean forward, engrossed; others doodle on notepads, look at their watches; in previous sessions the students have worked with a more homogenous, monolithic, sometimes quasimechanical rendering of the Chorus, and found it lacking in dynamic, too readily falling into mechanical formalism. We balance and test these details against determinations of the overarching Gestus of each scene: rehearsal as a recursive hermeneutics of part and whole.
Having decided upon a provisional staging, the students take up their places for a fumble-through. One holds a copy of the score of the final song in the text, just before the eighth and final section, allocated to the Chorus. Brecht and Hauptmann's somber, desolate rerendering of Paul's characterization of the apostles in his first letter to the Corinthians, set to Hanns Eisler's haunting score, grimly addresses “Those who help the despairing.”
Some studies found that providing micronutrient powder (MNP) causes adverse health outcomes; modifying factors are unknown. We aimed to investigate if iron status and inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHbD) modify the impact of MNP on growth and diarrhea among young Lao children. In a double-blind controlled trial, 1704 children ages 6-23mo were randomized to: daily MNP (with 6mg iron plus 14 micronutrients) or placebo for ~36wks. IHbD, and baseline and final hemoglobin (Hb), iron status, and anthropometrics were assessed. Caregivers provided weekly morbidity reports. At enrollment 55.6% were anemic; only 39.3% had no sign of clinically significant IHbD. MNP had no overall impact on growth and longitudinal diarrhea prevalence. Baseline Hb modified the effect of MNP on LAZ (P for interaction=0.082). Among children who were initially non-anemic, final mean LAZ in the MNP group was slightly lower (−1.93 (95%CI: −1.88, −1.97)) vs. placebo (−1.88 (95%CI: −1.83, −1.92)), and the opposite occurred among initially anemic children (final mean LAZ −1.90 (95% CI: −1.86, −1.94) in MNP vs. −1.92 (95% CI: −1.88, −1.96) in placebo). IHbD modified the effect on diarrhea prevalence (P=0.095). Among children with IHbD, the MNP group had higher diarrhea prevalence (1.37 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.59) vs. 1.21 (95%CI: 1.04, 1.41)), while it was lower among children without IHbD who received MNP (1.15 (95%CI: 0.95, 1.39) vs. 1.37 (95%CI: 1.13, 1.64)). In conclusion, there was a small adverse effect of MNP on growth among non-anemic children and on diarrhea prevalence among children with IHbD.