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Oil supplementation of by-product based diets is a common method of increasing the energy content of pig diets to levels equivalent to those of cereal-based diets (Overland et al 1999). However, by-product based diets supplemented with oil have been reported to reduce feed intake and digestible energy intake when compared with cereal-based diets (Magowan et al 2004). It is not known whether this effect occurs as a result of the higher levels of fibre in by-product-based diets or as a result of a reduction in palatability arising from the inclusion of oil in the pellet. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of method of vegetable oil blend application (either incorporated directly into the pellet (IN), or sprayed on after pelleting (SP)) on the performance and carcass characteristics of commercially housed finishing pigs.
By-product-based diets generally contain lower levels of energy than cereal-based diets due to higher levels of fibre (Bakker et al., 1995). Supplementation with oil is a common method of improving the digestible energy content of by-product-based diets and it has been reported that this practice may also improve energy digestibility. However, the results of McCann et al., (2004) suggested that the method of oil application to finishing pig diets may affect the digestibility of dietary nutrients. The aim of this experiment was to compare apparent digestibility coefficients determined in finishing pigs offered either by-product based diets or cereal-based diets, with and without vegetable oil blend supplementation applied using two different methods (either directly incorporated into the pellet (IN) or sprayed (SP) on after pelleting).
It is not possible to carry out in vivo pig digestibility studies on each feed or feed ingredient therefore there is a need for a rapid means of predicting the digestible energy content of a feed or feed ingredient. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is an extremely rapid technique and has been used to predict chemical composition and nutritive value for a wide range of feeds and feed ingredients (Leeson et al 2000). In the literature, some workers have reported that NIRS has a high degree of accuracy for determining chemical composition and nutritive value while others have reported a lower degree of accuracy. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of NIRS in predicting the digestible energy (DE) content of barley from which pig diets were formulated.
Cereals are commonly used in pig diets as the main sources of energy. However, depending on price and availability, diets of equivalent energy content can be formulated using combinations of oil and cereal by-products. The use of oil as an energy source has been shown to improve average daily gain (ADG) feed efficiency and increase digestible energy intake (DEI) (Overland et al 1999). However, there is a need to examine the response in pig performance to incremental levels of oil inclusion compared with the performance of pigs offered cereal-based diets. Therefore, the aim this study was to examine the effects of offering cereal-based diets or diets containing by-products and oil on the growth performance of commercially housed growing pigs.
Cereals have traditionally been used in the pig industry as the main source of energy in pig diets. However, as a result of cereal availability and price, alternative sources of energy have been considered, for example the addition of oil to cereal by-product-based diets. By-product-based diets commonly contain higher levels of fibre than cereal-based diets and several studies (e.g. Bakker et al 1995) have reported them to be less digestible in terms of dry matter (DM), energy, crude protein (CP) and oil. The lower DM digestibility of by-product-based diets may lead to a higher level of slurry output, which is an increasing environmental concern. The aim of this work was to examine the differences in digestibility between by-product-based diets supplemented with oil and cereal-based diets.
Pig producers in the United Kingdom (UK) are paid on the basis of carcass weight and backfat depth at the P2 position (65mm from the edge of the dorsal mid-line, at the level of the last rib). In processing plants, this measurement is assessed using the optical, Ulster or Hennessy probes and in live pigs measurements can be taken using various ultrasonic devices. Since backfat is considered a heritable trait (heritability value between 0.4 and 0.6) (Whittemore, 1993), it is of interest to the pig producer and breeder to measure it on live pigs when selecting for lean meat in replacement gilts and breeding boars. There are several commercially available ultrasonic devices and it is essential assessments made using these devices have strong correlations with backfat measurements taken at the processing plant. The accuracy of these correlations has not however been fully investigated. Indeed, work by Pomar et al (2001) indicated that assessments of fat using an Ultrascan 50 ultrasound system are only moderately accurate. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the accuracy of ultrasonic devices for backfat prediction as compared to the measurements obtained at the processing plant.
Extensive research into the impact of nutrition labelling across Europe has shown that many consumers can effectively use a nutrition label to rank a food for healthiness. The present paper considers observational and laboratory evidence which has examined the impact of nutrition labelling (on food packaging and at point of purchase) on dietary behaviour. In addition, the potential counterproductive effects of foods bearing ‘healthy’ nutrition labels are examined. The observational evidence provides a useful insight into the key characteristics of nutrition label use. Those most likely to engage with nutrition labels are more likely to have a diet related disease and/or be on a weight loss diet and have a good overall diet quality. Experimental evidence, while limited, suggests that serving size information may be overlooked by consumers. In fact, there may be a tendency among consumers to overeat foods that are perceived to be healthier. The findings from the present paper suggest that if nutrition labelling is to be considered a strategy to facilitate consumers in managing their energy intake, it must coincide with salient, consistent and simple serving size information on the front of food packages and at the point of purchase. There is a clear need for more experimental research using robust methodologies, to examine the impact of nutrition information on dietary intake. In the meantime, there should be greater attention given to portion size within national dietary guidance.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) and adsorption isotherms have long been traditional methods of characterising molecular sieves. By combining these techniques at low temperatures with variable temperature 129-Xe N.M.R. we now have a fuller understanding of the behaviour of sorbed layers inside these materials. In particular we have observed phase transformations of Xe in a polyhydroxyaluminium-pillared montmorillonite molecular sieve and have developed a model consistent with the data. In addition, using XRD, an interpillar distance of ca. 30Å was calculated. We present the first detailed low temperature studies of 129-Xe N.M.R. on these systems.
The production of fuel from renewable energy sources has generated increasing interest in recent years and biofuel production is being encouraged within the United Kingdom. If current government targets are to be met, approximately 2.7 million tonnes of oil seed rape are needed to supply biodiesel which will result in a significant amount of the by-product glycerol. Glycerol may be a useful source of energy in diets for pigs but there is limited research on the optimum level of inclusion, digestible energy (DE) content or on the effect on performance. Research by Mourot et al (1994) suggested that glycerol tended to reduce performance but significantly improved meat quality as assessed by drip loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glycerol inclusion in finishing pig diets on performance and meat quality.
Each primal cut of a pig carcass has a separate market and value. Commonly the degree of blemishes on the skin of the cut is the main determinant of its quality. However, the lean meat percentage of the primal cut is also of importance, especially to the consumer. If prediction equations were in place to enable processors to more accurately estimate the lean meat percentage of specific primal cuts, it would allow optimisation of primal cuts for specific markets or processing operations. The experiment investigated the accuracy of lean meat prediction equations for primal cuts using indicator cuts, grading probe data, data from photographic images and whole carcass lean meat percentage values.
Efficiency of feed is of primary commercial importance in pig production. Interest in nutritional solutions to increase feed efficiency has increased since the bans/restrictions on the use of antibiotic feed additives and heavy metals. DeviGuard® is a mixture of short, medium and long chain fatty acids all of which are encapsulated to reach the hind gut. Fatty acids have been shown to be the preferred energy source of the entrocytes in the gut, active against pathogenic bacteria and anti-inflammatory. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of fatty acid supplementation on the performance and digestibility of growing pigs.
In order to assess the nutritive value of pig diets, performance and digestibility trials must be conducted as there is no accurate alternative to predict nutritive value. However, the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict performance from feed ingredients has been shown to have potential. Owens et al (2007) investigated the use of NIRS to predict the performance of broilers offered wheat-based diets, through scanning of whole wheat, and observed that NIRS accurately predicted liveweight gain and gain:feed. The aim of this study was to investigate if NIRS could be used to predict the performance of pigs, through scanning of the complete diet.