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The First Quarto of The Merry Wives of Windsor is the most fascinatingly problematic of all the early Shakespearean texts. Was it an authorial first draft? Or a cut-down version of the better-known Folio text designed for acting? Or a text put together from faulty actors' memories? Or a reported text assembled by notetakers from attendance at the theatre? None of these theories, though advanced and interrogated for the last 250 years, is totally convincing. The Introduction to this edition explores the various attempts to make sense of the short version of the play, demonstrating the ways in which preferences for one theory or another reflect the changes in editorial theory and fashion over the centuries. The modernised text and its commentary enable the reader to enter into this ongoing and endlessly intriguing debate.
We compare the expressive power of three programming abstractions for user-defined computational effects: Plotkin and Pretnar’s effect handlers, Filinski’s monadic reflection, and delimited control. This comparison allows a precise discussion about the relative expressiveness of each programming abstraction. It also demonstrates the sensitivity of the relative expressiveness of user-defined effects to seemingly orthogonal language features. We present three calculi, one per abstraction, extending Levy’s call-by-push-value. For each calculus, we present syntax, operational semantics, a natural type-and-effect system, and, for effect handlers and monadic reflection, a set-theoretic denotational semantics. We establish their basic metatheoretic properties: safety, termination, and, where applicable, soundness and adequacy. Using Felleisen’s notion of a macro translation, we show that these abstractions can macro express each other, and show which translations preserve typeability. We use the adequate finitary set-theoretic denotational semantics for the monadic calculus to show that effect handlers cannot be macro expressed while preserving typeability either by monadic reflection or by delimited control. Our argument fails with simple changes to the type system such as polymorphism and inductive types. We supplement our development with a mechanised Abella formalisation.
In response to increasing numbers of older people in general hospitals who have cognitive impairment such as dementia and delirium, many hospitals have developed education and training programmes to prepare staff for this area of clinical practice.
To review the evidence on educational interventions on hospital care for older people with cognitive impairment.
A mixed methods systematic review and narrative synthesis was undertaken. The following electronic databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, ASSIA and Scopus, as well as Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), ProQuest, PubMed and SCIE: Social Care Online. Initial searches were run in August 2014 (update search September 2016). Titles and abstracts of studies retrieved were screened independently. The full text of eligible studies were then independently assessed by two review team members. All included studies were assessed using a standard quality appraisal tool.
Eight studies relating to delirium, six on dementia and two on delirium and dementia were included, each testing the use of a different educational intervention. Overall, the quality of the studies was low. In relation to delirium, all studies reported a significant increase in participants' knowledge immediately post-intervention. Two of the dementia studies reported an increase in dementia knowledge and dementia confidence immediately post-intervention.
The variety of outcomes measured makes it difficult to summarise the findings. Although studies found increases in staff knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that educational interventions for staff lead to improved patient outcomes.
Background: Caregivers are often unprepared and overwhelmed with the responsibilities of providing care to stroke survivors, which can lead to negative physical and psychological effects. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the Family Informal Caregiver Stroke Self-Management (FICSS) program on burden and life changes resulting from providing care among family caregivers of stroke survivors. Methods: A prospective pre-test and post-test design using quantitative and qualitative data was used to evaluate the program with a convenience sample of 42 caregivers. The four-module facilitated program consisted of small group-guided discussion. Quantitative evaluations were completed at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months (post-intervention), and qualitative data were collected at 2 weeks and 6 months. Life changes and burden were measured using the Bakas Caregiving Outcome Scale (BCOS) and the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS), respectively. Results: The BCOS scores increased consistently over time, showing significant differences at 6 months compared with 2 weeks (mean difference: 5.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-10.28, p=0.04) and baseline (mean difference: 7.58, 95% CI: 2.92-12.23, p=0.001). The OCBS time scores decreased consistently over time, showing a significant difference at 6 months compared with baseline (mean difference: −5.20, 95% CI: −0.96 to −9.44, p=0.02). The OCBS difficulty scores fluctuated over time, resulting in no overall difference from baseline to 6 months. Qualitative themes were consistent with the positive quantitative findings. Conclusion: Study results suggest that the FICSS program may result in reduced caregiver burden and improved life changes resulting from providing care.
Music has been an essential constituent of Shakespeare's plays from the sixteenth century to the present day, yet its significance has often been overlooked or underplayed in the history of Shakespearean performance. Providing a long chronological sweep, this collection of essays traces the different uses of music in the theatre and in film from the days of the first Globe and Blackfriars to contemporary, global productions. With a unique concentration on the performance aspects of the subject, the volume offers a wide range of voices, from scholars to contemporary practitioners (including an interview with the critically acclaimed composer Stephen Warbeck), and thus provides a rich exploration of this fascinating history from diverse perspectives.