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NGC 1365 is a galaxy which has lately received a lot of attention from people studying the structure and dynamics of barred galaxies. This is not surprising since it is one of the best suited objects in the sky. We have obtained a number of long-slit spectra in the red region (Hα, [NII], [SII]) with the ESO 3.6 m (Lindblad and Jörsäter) and with the CTIO 4 m (Peterson) telescopes. In addition, a couple of Fabry-Perot Hα interferograms have kindly been given to us by G. Comte and Y. Georgelin. Some preliminary results are presented here. Fig. 1 shows the positions of measured velocity points. The digits along the vertical axis indicate distance from the nucleus in seconds of arc. The dashed line at P.A. 48 deg indicates the line of nodes as determined from photometry of the outer features of the galaxy (Lindblad 1978). An arbitrary isophote has been sketched to aid the orientation. The emission lines in the bar are surprisingly weak which is the reason for the scarcity of velocity points there. Fig. 2 shows a rotation curve based on the P.A. of the line of nodes of 48 deg and an inclination of 55 deg (Lindblad 1978). Only velocity measurements within 50 deg of the line of nodes have been used in this diagram in order to avoid large projection errors. The distance used is 20 Mpc. The spread is quite large indicating a significant amount of non-circular motion.
Previous studies that have investigated the association between B-vitamin supplement use and risk for cataract yield conflicting results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements (approximately 10 times recommended daily intake) and risk for age-related cataract in a population-based prospective study of 13 757 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 22 823 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men. Dietary supplement use and potential confounders were assessed using a questionnaire at baseline. Information on cataract diagnosis and extraction was obtained through linkage to registers. During the follow-up period between January 1998 and December 2011, we identified 8395 cataract cases (3851 for women and 4544 for men). The use of B vitamins plus other supplements and B vitamins only was associated with 9 % (95 % CI 2, 17) and 27 % (95 % CI 12, 43) increased risk for cataract, respectively. The hazard ratios for use of B vitamins only and risk for cataract stratified by different age groups were as follows: <60 years: 1·88 (95 % CI 1·47, 2·39); 60–69 years: 1·21 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·53); and ≥70 years: 1·09 (95 % CI 0·91, 1·31) (Pinteraction=0·002). Our results suggest that the use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements was associated with an increased risk for cataract. This association might be confined to younger participants.
The barred spiral Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365 has been observed in the radio continuum at wavelengths of 2, 6 and 20 cm, using scaled arrays of the VLA, and complete maps have been made in the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 CO emission lines using the SEST. MEM maps of the 6 and 20 cm emission, as well as a spectral index map, have been produced with a resolution of 2″.3 × 0″.9, and the 2-cm map has a resolution of 0″.25 ×0″.10. The dominant continuum features are a number of unresolved sources with relatively flat non-thermal spectral indices (−0.3 to −0.5), immersed in an incomplete circumnuclear ring, which is superimposed upon a background that extends into the bar along the prominent dust lanes. The ring has angular dimensions of 8″ × 20″, which corresponds to a linear dimension of the order of 1 kpc. There is clear evidence of a jet, about 5″ long, originating at the position of the Seyfert nucleus and extending in a southeastern direction, closely along the minor axis of the galaxy. The jet has a steep non-thermal spectral index (–1.0) and is aligned along the axis of a conical shell of [OIII] emission. The CO molecular gas peaks at the nucleus and is strongly concentrated to the nucleus and bar regions with a certain enhancement along the bar. The total molecular hydrogen gas mass in the observed region is 2 × 1010M⊙, with 6 × 109M⊙ lying within 2.2 kpc of the nucleus. A full presentation of the results will be published in Astronomy and Astrophysics in 1994.
Since it was founded early in the 1980′s, the IAU Meteor Data Center (IAU MDC) has accumulated a large number of the meteoroid orbits measured worldwide so as to make these freely available to all interested researchers. The total number of orbits available is about 68,000, of which about 6,000 were determined using optical techniques (photographic or TV), the bulk having been detected using decameter radars. The observation sites range from various locations in the U.S.A., Canada, Australia, and in the former Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia; radar orbits from the Soviet Equatorial Expedition to Somalia are also archived. About 39,000 of the 62,000 radar orbits are derived from the Harvard Radar Meteor Project. Most of these programs were carried out during the 1960's and 1970′s, but still represent our best knowledge of the orbital distribution of interplanetary particles in the size range from 100 μm to 1 meter. A new survey currently in progress in New Zealand has so far rendered over 350,000 orbits, and it is anticipated that these will soon become available through the IAU MDC. Presently the 68,000 orbits archived in the IAU MDC are only available on magnetic recording media, but it is planned that they will shortly be made accessible via anonymous ftp.
NGC 1365 is a barred Seyfert 1.5 galaxy. Fig 1a is a contour plot of an [OIII]λ5007 image (Jörsäter & Lindblad 1989), showing a plume-like structure pointing towards SE in the direction of the minor axis of the galaxy, which also is the direction of the steepest velocity gradient in [OIII]λ5007. The plume is roughly aligned with a radio feature in the 6 and 20 cm continuum (see Sandqvist et al., this volume). The [OIII]-emission on the NW side is weaker. This plume-like structure is not seen in Hα.
If ω is the angular velocity of circular motions in a stellar system depending on the distance R from the centre, and κ is the frequency of oscillation in the radius vector for an orbit in the equatorial plane which differs slightly from a circular orbit, we may show that in a coordinate system of angular speed
the orbit in question is a closed oval, in the first approximation an ellipse, with two opposite vertices and with its centre in the centre of the system. The conditions are illustrated in Fig. 1, when AA is the apsidal line of an orbit. The expression for κ is
where A is Oort's constant of differential rotation. If the distribution of matter in the stellar system may be approximated by a sum of concentric spheroids with one and the same plane of symmetry, the density increasing with decreasing dimensions of the spheroids, we should expect κ = 2ω close to the centre, whereas in the outermost regions we must expect that κ approaches to ω. It is therefore likely that ω – ½κ does not change appreciably within the system. Fig. 2 gives the run of κ, ω, and ω – ½κ for the galactic system according to the values of ω given by Kwee, Muller, and Westerhout . In this case ω – ½κ changes very slowly with R. A relative orbit has a quite important property, if ω – ½κ is constant in the interval of R covered by the orbit. In this case, if the centre of gravity of a cloud of free particles follows the orbit, and if the velocity dispersion is small, the particles will pursue orbits which differ only slightly from each other and from the central orbit, but on the other hand there will in general be considerable differential motions along the central orbit. This orbit is therefore the curve in space along which a cloud of free particles tends to disperse. The process is similar to the dispersion of the meteoric particles of a comet along its orbit.
The nuclear region of the supergiant barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 contains bright “hot spots”, as seen at optical wavelengths, as well as a number of non-thermal radio continuum sources, some of which remain unresolved at 0.25” × 0.10” resolution (Sandqvist et al. 1995, A&A 295, 585).
The distribution of [OIII] λ5007 emission from the nuclear region supports the scenario of an [OIII] cone emanating from the Seyfert nucleus. The velocity field of the high excitation gas in the cone has been modeled by Hjelm & Lindblad (1996, A&A 305, 727) in terms of an accelerated bipolar conical outflow. Such conical or biconical high-excitation emission-line structures extending from the position of the nucleus are found in several active galactic nuclei.
During the past three years observational and theoretical work has been uncommonly extensive and fruitful in two of the fields within the interests of Commission 28—namely, the distribution of external galaxies and the analysis of diffuse nebulosity, the latter including interstellar absorbing material. Important work is also under way at a number of observatories in the interpretation of planetary nebulae. Studies of clusters, however, have been limited to a few active workers, and progress has not been rapid in the analysis of individual galaxies.
At the first meeting of the newly formed Commission on Spectrophotometry, at Paris in 1935, a thorough discussion, aided by several reports, took place on the principles of this branch of astrophysics. So it will be sufficient now to treat only such special points of theory and practice as have won interest by researches of the last few years.
In November 1934 the President circulated a letter to the members of the Commission as follows:
Since the 1932 meeting the following projects have been completed, or are nearing completion:
(1)The publication of many lists of trigonometric parallaxes.
(2)The determination of the spectroscopic parallaxes of 4179 stars at Mt Wilson Observatory by Adams, Joy and Humason.
(3)A discussion of systematic errors of trigonometric parallaxes by van Maanen and a re-discussion in the Astrophysical Journal of the same material by Mitchell and by Sterne.
(4)The compilation of a second Yale Catalogue to include parallaxes completed before the end of 1934.
(5)Substantial progress on the proper motions of 32,000 stars by Boss and his associates at the Dudley Observatory.
(6)The publication at the Radcliffe Observatory of the proper motions of 32,000 stars from photographs on 115 Selected Areas.
(7)The completion of the dynamical parallaxes of 2000 stars.
(8)The completion of the proper motions of 18,000 stars derived from parallax plates at the Leander McCormick Observatory.
(9)The publication at the Yale Observatory of the proper motions of 40,000 stars with a probable error less than 0”.010 determined from photographs by re-observing in zones the Astronomische Gesellschaft stars.
(10)The determination of the proper motions of 50,000 stars in the Southern Hemisphere by Luyten from Harvard photographs.
In the wide field of research covered by the Commission considerable progress has been made in recent years, and it is only possible here to touch briefly on the results of a few lines of investigation, without any attempt to completeness.
Stellar luminosities. On the basis of the new list of Mount Wilson spectroscopic parallaxes and a compilation of the long series of modern trigonometric parallaxes A. van Maanen finds 617 objects within a distance of 20 parsecs from the sun. It is very doubtful, however, if we know all the stars even in the region of 5 parsecs radius. Almost all the known stars within 20 parsecs belong to the main sequence, the faintest star being of absolute magnitude +16.6. The most interesting deviations from the main sequence are the three “white dwarfs”, Сотр. of Sirius, Comp. o2 Eridani, and van Maanen’s F type star. G. P. Kuiper lists 3 additional white dwarfs at larger distances which were estimated to be of types Bo, B7 and A2. For the first two stars, A.C. 70°8247 and Wolf 1346, a revision of the spectral types by Adams and Humason gives A2 and A5, respectively, although the spectra differ considerably from normal ones. The A2 star in Kuiper’s list is the one discovered by Oosterhoff in the region of the cluster h, X Persei; its spectral characteristics have been examined by Öhman and by Humason. The absence of the high-numbered members of the Bahner series and of the continuous absorption at the Balmer limit seems to be an important criterion of such stars. A white dwarf of quite peculiar spectrum (type probably about B8) is the companion of o Ceti discovered spectro-graphically by Joy in 1922. There appear several additional deviations towards faint magnitudes from the main sequence which may be classed more or less safely among the white dwarfs. A few such cases have been discussed at Lund by J. Tuominen.
Two-thirds of the members of the Commission have replied to the request of the chairman for an expression of their opinion. Most of them are in general well satisfied with the existing system of classification and nomenclature. Lindblad reports on successful work upon the determination of absolute magnitudes of faint stars, in many ways. Adams writes: “I might suggest that attention be called in the report to the fact that the ultra-violet spectra, even of stars like β Orionis, show large numbers of lines. As you probably remember, the spectrum of Sirius resembles, at first sight, the solar spectrum. If all observatories had the facilities for getting spectra in the far ultra-violet, this region would probably furnish the best criteria for spectral type.” Merrill suggests: “The nomenclature which, upon the basis of atomic transition, assigns the adjective ‘nebular’ to lines which may not occur in nebulae, and ‘ auroral ‘ to lines which may not occur in the aurora, is surely not an ideal one.
The following report, which has been drawn up partly on the basis of the reports of the members of the Commission, touches briefly and without any attempt at completeness a few points of the recent developments in certain important fields falling within the domain of the Commission.
In November 1931 the President circulated a letter to the members of the Commission which in part was as follows:
In view of the fact that it is now over a quarter of a century since Schlesinger by photography began to determine trigonometric parallaxes by a long focus telescope, and fifteen years since Adams and Kohlschütter derived the first spectroscopic parallaxes, it would seem appropriate to take stock of our present position and to make plans for future development.
Will you be good enough, therefore, to furnish such statements concerning the following topics as are appropriate to the work of your observatory?