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The cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency, Gaia, together with forthcoming complementary surveys (CoRoT, Kepler, K2, APOGEE and Gaia-ESO), will revolutionize our understanding of the formation and history of our Galaxy, providing accurate stellar masses, radii, ages, distances, as well as chemical properties for a very large sample of stars across different Galactic stellar populations. Using improved population synthesis approach and new stellar evolution models we attempt to evaluate the possibility to derive ages of clump stars from their chemical properties. A new version of the Besançon Galaxy models (BGM) is used in which new stellar evolutionary tracks are computed from the stellar evolution code STAREVOL. The effects of mixing on chemical composition of the stellar photosphere has a significant impact on the determined stellar age from the observed [C/N] ratio. We clearly show that transport processes occurring in red-giant stars should be taken into account in the determination of ages for future Galactic archaeology studies.
The thick disc is a major component of the Milky Way but its epoch of formation and characteristics are still not yet well constrained. The Besançon Galaxy Model (BGM, Robin et al. 2003) is a population synthesis model based on a scenario of formation and evolution of the Galaxy, a star formation history, and a set of stellar evolution models. Thanks to Lagarde et al. (2017), new evolutionary tracks have been introduced into the Besancon Galaxy Model (STAREVOL, Lagarde et al. 2012) to provide global asteroseismic and surface chemical properties along the evolutionary stages. This updated Galaxy model will allow us to constrain the thick disc structure and history using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting method (MCMC). We show preliminary results applying this MCMC method on the 2MASS photometric survey.
The analysis of efficiency in health care has largely focussed either on individual health care providers, or on sub-national health systems conceived as a unique decision-making unit. However, in hierarchically organized national health services, two separate entities are responsible for turning financial resources into services at the local level: health administrations and health care providers. Their separate roles and the one of health administrations in particular have not been explicitly considered in efficiency analysis. We applied stochastic frontier analysis to district-level panel data from Mozambique (2008-2011) to assess district efficiency in delivering outpatient care. We first assessed the efficiency of the whole district considered as an individual decision-making unit, and then we assessed separately the efficiency of health administrations and health care providers within the same district. We found that on average only 73% of the outpatient consultations deliverable using available inputs were realized, with large differences in performance across districts. Individual districts performed differently in administrative or health care delivery functions. On average, a reduction of administrative inefficiency by 10 percentage points, for a given expenditure would increase by 0.2% the volume of services delivered per thousand population per year. Identifying and targeting the specific drivers of administrative inefficiencies can contribute to increase service.
The availability of asteroseismic constraints for a large sample of red-giant stars from the CoRoT and Kepler missions paves the way for various statistical studies of the seismic properties of stellar populations. We use a detailed spectroscopic study of 19 CoRoT red-giant stars (Morel et al. 2014) to compare theoretical stellar evolution models to observations of the open cluster NGC 6633 and field stars. This study is already published in Lagarde et al. (2015)
DHA is an abundant nutrient from marine lipids: its specific biological effects have been investigated in human volunteers, taking into consideration the dose effects. We report herein that, at dosages below 1 g/d, DHA proved to be effective in lowering blood platelet function and exhibited an ‘antioxidant’ effect. However, this was no longer the case following 1·6 g/d, showing then a U-shape response. The antioxidant effect has been observed in platelets as well as LDL, of which the redox status is assumed to be crucial in their relationship with atherosclerosis. Second, the oxygenated products of DHA, especially protectins produced by lipoxygenases, have been considered for their potential to affect blood platelets and leucocytes. It is concluded that DHA is an interesting nutrient to reduce atherothrombogenesis, possibly through complementary mechanisms involving lipoxygenase products of DHA.
This exploratory study investigated the associations of individual characteristics of both persons with dementia and family caregivers with the nutritional status of caregivers.
This cross-sectional study was conducted at home by psychogerontologist within the frame of a community gerontological center in rural areas of south west France. The study participants comprised 56 community-dwelling persons with dementia (mean 80.7 years, SD 6.5) and 56 family caregivers (mean 70.9 years, SD 11.0). Persons with dementia were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Basic Activities Of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental ADL (IADL), and NeuroPsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and family caregivers with the Burden Interview (Zarit scale), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Y-B), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the emotional impact measure of NPI and the Autonomy, Gerontology and Group Resources scale (AGGIR scale). For both, nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®).
Among family caregivers, 32.1% were at risk of malnutrition and 5.4% were malnourished, and among people with dementia, 58.9% and 23.2%, respectively. NPI severity score of apathy of persons with dementia (Beta = −0.342, p = 0.001), dependency on AGGIR scale (Beta = −0.336, p = 0.002), and CES-D score of caregivers (Beta = −0.365, p = 0.001) were associated with caregivers’ MNA score (Adjusted R2 = 0.480, p < 0.001).
These preliminary findings emphasize the need for routine assessment of depressive symptoms, functional and nutritional status in dementia family caregivers, and confirm the value of investigating caregivers’ nutritional risk through an integrative view including psychosocial approach.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with socioeconomic difficulties later in life. Little research in this area has been based on longitudinal and community studies.
To examine the relationship between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status 18 years later.
Using a French community sample of 1103 youths followed from 1991 to 2009, we tested associations between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status between ages 22 and 35 years, adjusting for potential childhood and family confounders.
Individuals with high levels of childhood attention problems were three times more likely to experience subsequent socioeconomic disadvantage than those with low levels of attention problems (odds ratio 3.44, 95% CI 1.72–6.92). This association remained statistically significant even after adjusting for childhood externalising problems, low family income, parental divorce and parental alcohol problems.
This longitudinal community-based study shows an association between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic disadvantage in adulthood. Taking into account ADHD and associated difficulties could help reduce the long-term socioeconomic burden of the disorder.
Arid Mediterranean regions that shelter unique biodiversity are threatened by increasing anthropogenic pressures, such as urbanization, overgrazing and climate change. In Morocco, one of the main bush species in arid areas, the jujube (Ziziphus lotus), suffers from officially promoted programmes of removal. The Moorish tortoise (Testudo graeca soussensis) is threatened by such habitat loss. Like most animals, the Moorish tortoise must navigate between microhabitats to find essential feeding resources and thermal refuges. This study combined radio-tracking of free-ranging individuals, microhabitat temperature monitoring and transects in a range of habitats. Tortoises were found to depend on the occurrence of large and relatively abundant bushes to escape lethal overheating. Thus, (1) current official encouragements for the destruction of the jujube bushes should be reappraised; (2) habitat restoration relying on replanting jujube bush should be encouraged; and (3) large-scale monitoring of critical bush densities should be used to better organize conservation plans (protection and/or restoration of areas) for the Moorish tortoise.
Even in international matters, there is no such thing as ‘lawless contracts’ under French law, although it is perfectly admissible in international arbitrations to provide that the arbitral tribunal shall rule in ‘amiable composition’, which does not require the tribunal to apply a law except for fundamental rules of due process and international public policy. However, by virtue of the principle of contractual freedom, a contract governed by French law may also refer to other norms and customs, e.g., the trade practices of the shipping industry. The general observations contained in this chapter must therefore be adapted to the specific business norms and customs that may apply to a given contract according to the field of activity involved.
These general observations should also be qualified to take into account the general approach of French judges towards contracts. The Civil Code does contain a few rules of construction in Articles 1156–1164. One should, however, point out certain qualifications regarding their exact scope and effect:
– First of all, the French Supreme Court decided that these rules of interpretation are not mandatory.
This lack of mandatory character applies to all rules of interpretation, including the rule provided by Article 1162 of the Civil Code, according to which: ‘when in doubt a contract is interpreted against he who stipulated and in favour of he who contracted the obligation.’ This is the equivalent of the English law principle of contra proferentem. […]
Use of deep ultraviolet (DUV, below 350 nm) fluorescence opens up new possibilities in biology because it does not need external specific probes or labeling but instead allows use of the intrinsic fluorescence that exists for many biomolecules when excited in this wavelength range. Indeed, observation of label free biomolecules or active drugs ensures that the label will not modify the biolocalization or any of its properties. In the past, it has not been easy to accomplish DUV fluorescence imaging due to limited sources and to microscope optics. Two worlds were coexisting: the spectrofluorometric measurements with full spectrum information with DUV excitation, which lacked high-resolution localization, and the microscopic world with very good spatial resolution but poor spectral resolution for which the wavelength range was limited to 350 nm. To combine the advantages of both worlds, we have developed a DUV fluorescence microscope for cell biology coupled to a synchrotron beamline, providing fine tunable excitation from 180 to 600 nm and full spectrum acquired on each point of the image, to study DUV excited fluorescence emitted from nanovolumes directly inside live cells or tissue biopsies.
Consumption of DHA has numerous beneficial effects, but little is known about these effects during the first few days of the DHA dietary intake. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the time course of DHA incorporation into phospholipids in different mouse tissues and the effects of DHA supplementation on adiponectin and leptin secretion. Mice were fed either a control diet or a DHA-rich diet, and some were killed on days 0, 4, 8, 16 and 32. Some mice were fed the DHA-rich diet for 16 d, and were then maintained on the control diet for sixteen more days (washout period). DHA supplementation increased plasma adiponectin secretion by 2·4-fold as early as 4 d after the initiation of the DHA-rich diet feeding. The adiponectin concentration remained 1·6-fold higher after the 16 d washout period. Plasma leptin levels were significantly lower after 4 d of feeding with DHA. These effects were associated with a significant increase in DHA incorporation in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine of all analysed tissues (liver, heart and white adipose tissues). DHA mainly got incorporated at the expense of n-6 arachidonic acid. The present data show that DHA rapidly improved the profile of secreted adipokines, and that these protective effects were long lasting.
Performed in November 2007, the observation of the hot Jupiter-like exoplanet Gliese 86b constituted the first attempt of exoplanet detection with MIDI, and also the first VLTI observation using AMBER and MIDI simultaneously. Fringes were obtained for both instruments with the aim to correct the interferometric phase in N-band from the wet dispersion using the fringes
In N-band, it appears that the theoretical interferometric phase would be a curved-like function with an amplitude of about
0.04°. According to the MIDI phase measurements of the calibrator HD 9362, we roughly estimate that a precision of about
0.33° is currently reached.
The AMBER data, obtained in parallel, were too noisy for correcting the corresponding dispersion in N band,
the correction accuracy standing at factor 10 above the detection.
presents a very low absolute humidity level. In homogeneous humidity conditions, the curvature amplitude of the phase term due to water vapor, is also ten times smaller than the MIDI one, and may stand below the planetary phase signature. However differential humidity measurements would be required to completely validate the potential of this site.
Thermohaline mixing has been recently identified as the dominating process that governs the photospheric composition of low-mass bright giant stars (Charbonnel & Zahn 2007a). Here we present the predictions of stellar models computed with the code STAREVOL that takes into account this mechanism together with rotational mixing and atomic diffusion. We compare our theorical predictions with recent observations and discuss how the corresponding yields for 3He are compatible with the observed behaviour of this light element in our Galaxy.
Lithium has long been known to be a good tracer of non-standard mixing processes occurring in stellar interiors. Here we present the results of a large survey aimed at determining the surface Li abundance in a sample of about 800 giant (RGB and AGB) stars with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes. We compare the observed Li behaviour with that predicted by stellar models including rotation and thermohaline mixing.
The simultaneous investigation of Li and Be in stars is a powerful tool in the study of the evolutionary mixing processes. Here, we present beryllium abundances in stars along the whole evolutionary sequence of the open cluster IC 4651. This cluster has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.11 and an age of 1.2 or 1.7 Gyr. Abundances have been determined from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra using spectrum synthesis and model atmospheres. Lithium abundances for the same stars were determined in a previous work. Confirming previous results, we find that the Li dip is also a Be dip. For post-main-sequence stars, the Be dilution starts earlier within the Hertzsprung gap than expected from classical predictions, as does the Li dilution. Theoretical hydrodynamical models are able to reproduce well all the observed features.
Thermohaline mixing has been recently identified as the dominating process that governs the photospheric composition of low-mass bright giant stars (Charbonnel & Zahn 2007). Here we present the predictions of stellar models computed with the code STAREVOL taking into account this mechanism together with rotational mixing and atomic diffusion. We compare our theorical predictions with recent observations and discuss how the corresponding yields for 3He are compatible with the observed behaviour of this light element in our Galaxy.
n-3 PUFA supplementation helps in the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases and CVD. However, many supplementations reported so far are either a combination of n-3 PUFA or used large daily amounts of n-3 PUFA dosages. The present study investigated the influence of increasing dose intake of DHA on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in neutrophils and on their capability to produce leukotrienes (LT) B4 and B5in vitro. Twelve healthy volunteers were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg, each dose in TAG containing DHA as the only PUFA and for a 2-week period). At the end of each supplementation period, neutrophil fatty acid composition, and LTB4 and LTB5 production were determined by GC and liquid chromatography–tandem MS, respectively. The DHA/arachidonic acid ratio increased in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the increasing doses of DHA supplementation and was significantly different from baseline after supplementation with either 400, 800 or 1600 mg DHA. The LTB5/LTB4 ratio was significantly increased compared to baseline after supplementation with 800 and 1600 mg DHA. LTB5/LTB4 and DHA/arachidonic acid ratios were correlated (r 0·531, P < 0·0001). The present data suggest that both changes in neutrophil lipid composition and LT production occurred with daily supplementation with 800 and 1600 mg DHA. The clinical benefits associated with these doses of DHA in inflammatory diseases remain to be investigated.
Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA has been reported to decrease several markers of lymphocyte activation and modulate monocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. However, most human studies examined the combined effect of DHA and EPA using relatively high daily amounts of n-3 PUFA. The present study investigated the effects of increasing doses of DHA added to the regular diet of human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte response to tetradecanoylphorbol acetate plus ionomycin activation, and on monocyte apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL. Eight subjects were supplemented with increasing daily doses of DHA (200, 400, 800, 1600 mg) in a TAG form containing DHA as the only PUFA, for 2 weeks each dose. DHA intake dose-dependently increased the proportion of DHA in mononuclear cell phospholipids, the augmentation being significant after 400 mg DHA/d. The tetradecanoylphorbol acetate plus ionomycin-stimulated IL-2 mRNA level started to increase after ingestion of 400 mg DHA/d, with a maximum after 800 mg intake, and was positively correlated (P < 0·003) with DHA enrichment in cell phospholipids. The treatment of monocytes by oxidized LDL before DHA supplementation drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with native LDL treatment. Oxidized LDL apoptotic effect was significantly attenuated after 400 mg DHA/d and the protective effect was maintained throughout the experiment, although to a lesser extent at higher doses. The present results show that supplementation of the human diet with low DHA dosages improves lymphocyte activability. It also increases monocyte resistance to oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis, which may be beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis.
Dijkerman & de Haan (D&dH) study perception and action as two independent processes. However, in all daily activities the processes are completely intertwined, so it is difficult to separate one from the other. Humans perceive in order to move and also move in order to perceive. Understanding first how perception and action are coordinated, leads us then to determine how each component works independently.