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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST, has an extensive nanotechnology portfolio to serve the measurement needs of its customers during every stage of technological innovation. This presentation will introduce the nanometrology program at NIST, emphasizing its impacts, both current and potential, on the biotechnology area. NIST’s main areas of focus will be described, as well as the influences of the needs of the biotechnology arena on the continual shaping of this program. NIST nanobiotechnology programs relate to the entire technological innovation continuum, from materials discovery/R&D through the end-use (and disposal) of a product. During the materials discovery and applied R&D stages, NIST measurement science provides many of the tools necessary to enable the components that will one day be inserted into commercialized products. NIST resources, such as the Advanced Measurement Laboratory (AML), provide measurement tools needed to increase the nation’s capability to understand phenomena at the nanoscale and accelerate technological innovation. NIST perspectives on measurement needs and solutions in the earlier stages of technological innovation will be discussed in the context of the nanobiotechnology sector. As nanobiotechnology products move toward the marketplace, the need for standards becomes clear, not only for potential FDA regulatory policy, but also for interlaboratory comparisons, and to support the development of assay protocols and other products anticipated from such organizations as NCL and ASTM. NIST work in standards and standard reference materials / reference materials (SRM/RM) will be discussed in this light. NIST priorities at all stages are strongly influenced by an understanding of the needs of the sectors to which it provides services. In this light, partnerships are extremely important in optimizing the path to providing appropriate techniques for application in nanobiotechnology. The NIST role in a NIST-NCI-FDA partnership will be presented as an example.Finally, a NIST perspective on the future of measurement science and technology work for nanobiotechnology will be presented.
Reports of changes in patients’ social behavior during deep brain stimulation (DBS) raised the question whether DBS induces changes in personality. This study explored if (1) DBS is associated with changes in personality in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD), (2) how personality dimensions and depression are associated, and (3) if TRD patients’ self-ratings of personality are valid.
TRD patients were assessed before DBS (n = 30), 6 months (t2, n = 21), 2 (t3, n = 17) and 5 years (t4, n = 11) after the initiation of DBS of the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB-DBS). Personality was measured with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), depression severity with Hamilton (HDRS), and Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).
Personality dimensions did not change with slMFB-DBS compared with baseline. Extraversion was negatively correlated with HDRS28 (r = −0.48, p < 0.05) and MADRS (r = −0.45, p < 0.05) at t2. Inter-rater reliability was high for the NEO-FFI at baseline (Cronbach's α = 0.74) and at t4 (α = 0.65). Extraversion [t(29) = −5.20; p < 0.001] and openness to experience [t(29) = −6.96; p < 0.001] differed statistically significant from the normative sample, and did not predict the antidepressant response.
slMFB-DBS was not associated with a change in personality. The severity of depression was associated with extraversion. Personality of TRD patients differed from the healthy population and did not change with response, indicating a possible scar effect. Self-ratings of personality seem valid to assess personality during TRD.
Gravitational micro-lensing can be used to obtain information 1) on the inner structure of active galactic nuclei and 2) on the distribution of compact masses in the range 10−4 … 102 solar masses. A regular monitoring of the most promising candidates for micro-lensing should be carried out. The strongest candidate is the macro-lensed quasar 2237+030, for which we expect a change in the luminosity ratio between the images of about 5 per cent per year.
Electoral competitiveness is a key explanatory construct across a broad swath of phenomena, finding application in diverse areas related to political incentives and behavior. Despite its frequent theoretical use, no valid measure of electoral competitiveness exists that applies across different electoral and party systems. We argue that one particular type of electoral competitiveness'electoral risk'can be estimated across institutional contexts and matters most for incumbent behavior. We propose, estimate, and make available a cross-nationally applicable measure for elections in 22 developed democracies between 1960 and 2011. Unlike extant alternatives, our measure captures vote volatility and is constructed at the party (not system) level, exogenous to most policy predictors, and congruent with the perceptions and incentives of policy-makers.
Scholars, observing clustering in transitions to democracy, argue that democratization diffuses across borders as citizens in autocracies demand the same reforms they witness in neighboring states. We disagree. This article demonstrates that diffusion plays only a highly conditional role in democratization. We advance and test an alternative two-step theory of clustered democratization: (1) economic and international political shocks, which are clustered spatially and temporally, induce the breakdown of authoritarian regimes; then (2) democratic diffusion, in turn, influences whether a fallen dictatorship will be replaced by a democracy or a new autocracy. Diffusion, despite playing an important role, is insufficient to explain the clustering of transitions. Using data on 125 autocracies from 1875 to 2004, we show that economic crises trigger authoritarian breakdowns, while diffusion influences whether the new regime is democratic or authoritarian.
Gravitational micro-lensing due to stars in the deflecting galaxy influences the brightness and the spectra of the macro-images. Thus differences in the spectra of different macro-images are not automatically an argument against gravitational lensing. Furthermore changes in the spectra due to micro-lensing may give informations on the quasar structure. From high amplification events the brightness profile of the source may be obtained. The time scale of the high amplification event is proportional to the source radius and inverse proportional to the transversal velocity. Due to the large brightness gradient by a high amplification event, a “parallax-effect” occurs, from which the transversal velocity may be obtained, and thereby the source radius (R=Δ t · VT). We roughly estimate 0.3 high amplication events per year for all gravitationally lensed quasars. Frequent monitoring should be carried out in order to predict high amplification events as early as possible.
We here present a short report about the application of a simple time delay estimator to the extensive data set compiled and partly observed by R. Schild, containing 707 A and B observations with corresponding error estimates from JD 244194 to JD 249169.
Applying the complex formalism of Part I we investigate the transformation of the ellipticity and orientation distribution of elliptical background sources by local lensing. One important result is that we can apply the techniques from Part I directly in most parts of the cluster field from which we can also reconstruct the distribution of the background sources, without further information. Knowing the distribution we can apply the techniques from Part I everywhere.
The 1932 report of this Commission, and the report of the ensuing discussion, revealed an unsatisfactory position with regard to sources of the red line of cadmium which could be relied upon to give the adopted standard value for the wave-length 6438.4696 x 10−10 metre.
Dr Meggers has summarised the position very clearly in a recent paper on “ Interference Measurements in the Spectra of Noble Gases” (B.S.J. Research, 13, 293, 1934) and has expressed a strong preference for the specification of the Michelson lamp adopted in 1927 by the International Conference of Weights and Measures (see Trans I.A.U. 4, 58, 1932). He points out that the I.A.U. specification of 1925 is less restricted, inasmuch as it does not exclude high-frequency excitation and makes no mention of the volume or capillary bore of the tube, but requires that it must give interferences with differences of path of at least 200,000 waves. The last condition is considered objectionable on the ground that this is less than half of the theoretical or actual limit of the Michelson tube, and it is further considered that cadmium sources in which any such reduction in interference order occurs will certainly yield a different value for the primary standard.
The red radiation, 6438.4696 A., emitted by a cadmium lamp of Michelson type was first chosen in 1907 by the International Union for Co-operation in Solar Research (Trans. I.U.S.R. 2, 109, 1907) as a definition of the unit of wave-length. This primary standard was subsequently adopted by the International Astronomical Union (Trans. I.A.U. 1, 35, 1922) and by the International Committee on Weights and Measures (Procès-Verbaux Comité Int. Poids et Mesures (2), 12,67,1927). Specifications for the production of this primary standard were adopted provisionally by the I.A.U. in 1925 (Trans. I.A.U. 2, 47, 232, 1925), and by the I.C.W.M. in 1927 (Procès-Verbaux Comité Int. Poids et Mesures (2), 12, 67, 1927). Three reports of this Commission (Trans. I.A.U. 3, 77, 236, 1928; ibid. 4, 58, 233,1932; ibid. 5, 81, 299, 1935) have discussed the divergences in these specifications and pointed out the unsatisfactory features of each. This discussion culminated in a revised specification (Trans. I.A.U. 5, 303, 1935) which was adopted unanimously by the I.C.W.M. in 1935 (Procès-Verbaux Comité Int. (2), 17, 91,1935).
Patients with psychosis display the so-called ‘Jumping to Conclusions’ bias (JTC) – a tendency for hasty decision-making in probabilistic reasoning tasks. So far, only a few studies have evaluated the JTC bias in ‘at-risk mental state’ (ARMS) patients, specifically in ARMS samples fulfilling ‘ultra-high risk’ (UHR) criteria, thus not allowing for comparisons between different ARMS subgroups.
In the framework of the PREVENT (secondary prevention of schizophrenia) study, a JTC task was applied to 188 patients either fulfilling UHR criteria or presenting with cognitive basic symptoms (BS). Similar data were available for 30 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, education and premorbid verbal intelligence. ARMS patients were identified by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Adult Version (SPI-A).
The mean number of draws to decision (DTD) significantly differed between ARM -subgroups: UHR patients made significantly less draws to make a decision than ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. Furthermore, UHR patients tended to fulfil behavioural criteria for JTC more often than BS patients. In a secondary analysis, ARMS patients were much hastier in their decision-making than controls. In patients, DTD was moderately associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as disorganization and excitement.
Our data indicate an enhanced JTC bias in the UHR group compared to ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. This underscores the importance of reasoning deficits within cognitive theories of the developing psychosis. Interactions with the liability to psychotic transitions and therapeutic interventions should be unravelled in longitudinal studies.
Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7–29·3 kg/m2) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0–28·4 kg/m2) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (−1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (−1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.
Research on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders has established preliminary efficacy signals for treatment-resistant depression. There are only few studies on DBS that included patients suffering from bipolar disorder. This article gives an overview of these studies concerning DBS targets, antidepressant efficacy, and the occurrence of manic/hypomanic symptoms under stimulation. First, promising results show that all patients experienced significant improvement in depressive symptomatology. In a single case, hypomanic symptoms occurred, but they could be resolved by adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this article highlights important clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression that have to be considered throughout the course of treatment.
Given a domain
of a complete Riemannian manifold
to be the Laplacian with Neumann boundary condition on
. We prove that, under appropriate conditions, the corresponding heat kernel satisfies the Gaussian upper bound
is the geodesic distance on
is the Riemannian volume of
is the geodesic ball of centre
is a constant related to the doubling property of
. As a consequence we obtain analyticity of the semigroup
$p\in [1,\infty )$
as well as a spectral multiplier result.
Schizophrenia is characterized by profound and disabling deficits in the ability to recognize emotion in facial expression and tone of voice. Although these deficits are well documented in established schizophrenia using recently validated tasks, their predictive utility in at-risk populations has not been formally evaluated.
The Penn Emotion Recognition and Discrimination tasks, and recently developed measures of auditory emotion recognition, were administered to 49 clinical high-risk subjects prospectively followed for 2 years for schizophrenia outcome, and 31 healthy controls, and a developmental cohort of 43 individuals aged 7–26 years. Deficit in emotion recognition in at-risk subjects was compared with deficit in established schizophrenia, and with normal neurocognitive growth curves from childhood to early adulthood.
Deficits in emotion recognition significantly distinguished at-risk patients who transitioned to schizophrenia. By contrast, more general neurocognitive measures, such as attention vigilance or processing speed, were non-predictive. The best classification model for schizophrenia onset included both face emotion processing and negative symptoms, with accuracy of 96%, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.99. In a parallel developmental study, emotion recognition abilities were found to reach maturity prior to traditional age of risk for schizophrenia, suggesting they may serve as objective markers of early developmental insult.
Profound deficits in emotion recognition exist in at-risk patients prior to schizophrenia onset. They may serve as an index of early developmental insult, and represent an effective target for early identification and remediation. Future studies investigating emotion recognition deficits at both mechanistic and predictive levels are strongly encouraged.