To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The behaviour of low-viscosity, pressure-driven compressible pore fluid flows in viscously deformable porous media is studied here with specific application to gas flow in lava domes. The combined flow of gas and lava is shown to be governed by a two-equation set of nonlinear mixed hyperbolic–parabolic type partial differential equations describing the evolution of gas pore pressure and lava porosity. Steady state solution of this system is achieved when the gas pore pressure is magmastatic and the porosity profile accommodates the magmastatic pressure condition by increased compaction of the medium with depth. A one-dimensional (vertical) numerical linear stability analysis (LSA) is presented here. As a consequence of the pore-fluid compressibility and the presence of gravitation compaction, the gradients present in the steady-state solution cause variable coefficients in the linearized equations which generate instability in the LSA despite the diffusion-like and dissipative terms in the original system. The onset of this instability is shown to be strongly controlled by the thickness of the flow and the maximum porosity, itself a function of the mass flow rate of gas. Numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear system are also presented and exhibit nonlinear wave propagation features such as shock formation. As applied to gas flow within lava domes, the details of this dynamics help explain observations of cyclic lava dome extrusion and explosion episodes. Because the instability is stronger in thicker flows, the continued extrusion and thickening of a lava dome constitutes an increasing likelihood of instability onset, pressure wave growth and ultimately explosion.
Phonology is a rapidly changing and increasingly varied field, having traveled quite some distance from its original structuralist and generative underpinnings. In this overview I address the status of underlying representations (URs) in phonology, which have been rejected by a number of researchers working in different frameworks. After briefly discussing the current state of phonology, I survey the arguments in favor of vs. against URs, considering recent surface-oriented critiques and alternatives. I contrast three straightforward abstract tonal analyses against the potential arguments which accuse URs of being (i) wrong, (ii) redundant, (iii) indeterminate, (iv) insufficient, or (v) uninteresting. Identifying two distinct goals in linguistics which I refer to as determining ‘what’s in the head?’ vs. ‘what’s in the language?’, I suggest, responding to some rather strong opinions to the contrary, that URs are an indispensable and welcome tool offering important insights into the typology of phonological systems, if not beyond.
Objectives: Verbal episodic memory is a key domain of impairment in people with schizophrenia with close ties to a variety of aspects of functioning and therapeutic treatment response. A randomized, blinded trial of two mnemonic strategies for verbal episodic memory deficits for people with schizophrenia was conducted. Methods: Sixty-one people with schizophrenia were assigned to one of three experimental conditions: training in a mnemonic strategy that included both visualization and narrative structure (Story Method), a condition in which participants were trained to visualize words interacting with one another (Imagery), or a non-trained control condition in which participants received equivalent exposure to training word lists and other verbal memory assessments administered in the other two conditions, but without provision of any compensatory mnemonic strategy. Participants were assessed on improvements in recall of the word list used as part of training, as well as two, standardized verbal memory assessments which included stimuli not used as part of strategy training. Results: The Story Method produced improvements on a trained word list that generalized to a non-trained, prose memory task at a 1-week follow-up. In contrast, provision of a mnemonic strategy of simple visualization of words produced little improvement on word recall of trained words or on measures of generalization relative to the performance of participants in the control condition. Conclusions: These findings support the inclusion of enriched mnemonic strategies consisting of both visualization and narrative structure in sustained and comprehensive programs of CR for enhancement of verbal episodic memory in schizophrenia. (JINS, 2017, 23, 352–357)
The popularization of science in nineteenth-century America is inseparable from the democratization of Western society in the early modern era. The contempt for labor that characterized the medieval attitude was gradually replaced by a new spirit whose roots go back to at least the twelfth century and which accompanied the rise in economic importance of the skilled craftsman and mechanic in a modernizing economy. The new importance of the artisan-mechanic to the economy forced a reconsideration of the proper relationship between the artisan and the scientist. The association of knowledge with its applications — its utility—was interwoven with a growing self-conception that the productions of the craftsman and the mechanic made possible a grasp of regularities and order in nature hitherto not even so conceptualized. Advances in techniques and in the material conditions of life were accompanied by corresponding changes in the perception and conceptualization of nature and society. The artisan achieved a new and elevated status of dignity and place. He worked in close collaboration with scientists, and frequently the distinctions between them were blurred and undefined.
How one assesses the characteristics, the major direction, and the role of republican education in the early national period is bound to be influenced by how one defines the kind of society in which it existed. The controversy still continuing among historians about the degree of democracy in the colonial and revolutionary eras has an important bearing on any estimate of what constituted republican education. This controversy revolves around such questions as: Did democracy exist in the colonial era or did it first emerge in the Jacksonian period? To what degree had hierarchy and status been broken down? Was there in fact a ruling elite or had it been dissolved by political democracy and a changing social structure? How much vertical mobility was there in allowing individuals to rise economically or to achieve political leadership?
In 14C dating of pictographs, we use a low-temperature oxygen plasma coupled with high-vacuum techniques to selectively remove carbon-containing material in the paint without contamination from the rock substrate, even if limestone (CaCO3). In addition to one previously published measurement, we analyzed two more pictograph samples, which are in accord with archaeological inference. A sample of known age charcoal, also processed by our method, matched the control. This technique produces little mass fractionation, the maximum δ13C being 0.16‰ from the untreated sample. Limestone decomposition does not occur during our procedure. Although the technique development is in its infancy, these new results demonstrate that our non-destructive technique has great potential for producing accurate 14C ages.
We report here progress on our technique for 14C dating pictographs. We use low-temperature oxygen plasmas coupled with high-vacuum techniques to selectively remove carbon-containing material in the paints without contamination from rock substrates or accretions. We dated >16 pictograph samples that generally agree with ages expected on the basis of archaeological inference. We have shown that carbonate and calcium oxalate decomposition does not occur during our procedure; little mass fractionation is produced. We also used the technique on samples of known 14C activity. In each case our results agree with previously determined ages of archaeological charcoal samples. Two samples of the standard Third International Radiocarbon Intercomparison wood yielded ages in near accord with the accepted value. We used 14C-free samples to establish that the method and apparatus do not have a significant live carbon background. Each of these determinations supports our conclusion that the technique has the potential of producing accurate and reliable ages. However, background organic material in the basal rocks and accretions can be troublesome, often completely negating the dates obtained.
It has been shown that contamination from humic acids, chitin, fungal products, etc., contributing young carbon, and from bitumen and carbonate, contributing old carbon, may not be completely removed from wood and char samples by the usual hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments of the samples. A procedure is offered for the isolation of a pure chemical substance from such samples, cellulose from wood and uncombined carbon from char, that must represent the original material. Cellulose is prepared by boiling the resin-free sample in 1.25% H2SO4 and 1.25% NaOH, adding Schweitzer's reagent, filtering, and precipitating from the filtrate by acidification. Uncombined carbon is separated from char samples as the flocculant precipitate remaining after boiling in 70% HNO3, followed by settling overnight from a large volume of 6M HNO3. A simple procedure for the chemical examination of char samples is also offered for the estimation of the amounts of bitumen, carbonate, combined, and uncombined carbon in char.
Figure 1 presents a wide-field, high dynamic-range, 327 MHz VLA2 image of the Galactic center (GC). This image was constructed from archival VLA data using new 3-D image restoration techniques which resolve the problem of non-coplanar baselines encountered at long wavelengths. In a recent paper (LaRosa et al. 2000) we presented a catalog of over a hundred sources from this image, 23 extended sources and 78 small-diameter sources. The catalog contains flux densities, positions, sizes, and, where possible, a 20/90 cm spectral index. We also present subimages of all the extended sources. We refer the reader to LaRosa et al. (2000) for the details. In this note we will concentrate on observations of the nonthermal filaments and briefly describe a new model for their formation.
The origin and evolution of the nonthermal filaments (NTFs) observed in the GC is an outstanding problem. All of the 7 classified NTFs are visible on Figure 1: Four of these are labeled threads, the other three are the “Snake,” the “Pelican,” and the Sgr C filament. The wide-field imaging at 327 MHz lead to the discovery of the “Pelican” (Lang et al. 1999). This filament has the distinction of being the farthest NTF in projection from Sgr A and the only NTF that is parallel to the Galactic plane. One critical issue for understanding the activity and overall structure of the GC is whether these filamentary sources trace a pervasive, large-scale magnetic field or are local independent structures (e.g., Yusef-Zadeh 1989; Morris 1994, 1996; Uchida & Gusten 1995; Yusef-Zadeh, Wardle & Parastaran 1997; Shore & LaRosa 1999; Lang et al. 1999; Lang, Morris & Echevarria 1999; LaRosa et al. 2000).