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Psychopathological and biological markers that predict response to antidepressant drugs that selectively increase serotonin and/or chatecholaminergic neurotransmission will considerably increase the effects of currently available treatment options.
Comparison of tryptophan depletion (TD) and catecholamine depletion (CD) regarding the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms.
To elucidate the differential symptomatology and neurocircuitry in response to reductions in serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmission in subjects at high risk of depression.
Using identical neuroimaging procedures with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography after TD and CD, subjects with remitted depression were compared to healthy controls in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design.
While TD induced significantly more depressed mood, sadness and hopelessness than CD, CD induced more inactivity, concentration difficulties, lassitude and somatic anxiety than TD.CD specifically increased glucose metabolism in the bilateral ventral striatum and decreased glucose metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, whereas TD led to a specific increase in glucose metabolism in the right prefrontal cortex and in the PCC. While we found direct associations between changes in brain metabolism and induced depressive symptoms following CD, the relationship between neural activity and symptoms was less clear after TD.
This study showed that serotonin and catecholamines play common and differential roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Thus, the development of psychopathological and neuronal markers predicting response to selective monoamine inhibition is feasible, and current efforts to develop antidepressants with dual and triple reuptake inhibition (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine) are supported by this study.
And why ‘heritage’ as opposed to ‘culture’? They are still alive and performing after all. (Les Roberts on The Who, 2014, 263)
Les Roberts's observations of The Who –a band with only its lead singer and guitarist/ songwriter alive of its founding members –raises an interesting question about meanings of heritage in popular music, and within popular culture more broadly. To engage the backroom and on-the-road machinery to tour, to perform the back catalogue (and newer works) nightly, is to insist on presence and meaning in contemporary popular music. As Roberts (2014, 263) points out, The Who must also contend with other imaginings; their closing of the 2012 Olympic Games in London fixed them as ‘heritage’, where the live and televisual audience were invited to consume both the live performance and their status as the ‘Best of British’ rock in other times.
In a very different context, Simon Leys's (2006) novella, The Death of Napoleon, asks similar questions about perceptions of heritage in contemporary eras. It is the late 1800s. Itching to escape British-imposed exile on St Helena, Napoleon boards a Portuguese seal-hunting ship, leaving a loyal former officer to act as his double as he once again seeks to rule France. Making it to Brussels, the former Emperor grabs the first opportunity he sees to enter France –a Waterloo history tour, with visits to ‘Napoleon's bedroom’, ‘the battlefield’ and ‘veterans’ providing commentary. With thoughts of a triumphant retake of Paris, plans go awry upon news that the double on St Helena has inconveniently died. The Emperor is immediately confronted with how to manage his present amid a population grieving for his past: ‘from now on, his destiny was posthumous’ (Leys 2006, 69).
The novella is a wonderful conceit that works in multiple ways: the officer performing the daily tribute performance of Napoleon on St Helena; the Emperor confronted with his failures as commodified heritage; and seeking in vain the forms of ‘Napoleon-ness’ which render him once again as authentic. Yet the novella also has something to say more broadly about nostalgia and time. The busy, portentous present is compared with the inaction of the past.
Little is known about the potential health impact of police encounters despite a ubiquitous police presence in many disadvantaged urban environments. In this paper, we assess whether persistent or aggressive interactions with the police are associated with poor mental health outcomes in a sample of primarily low-income communities of colour in Chicago.
Between March 2015 and September 2016, we surveyed 1543 adults in ten diverse Chicago communities using a multistage probability design. The survey had over 350 questions on health and social factors, including police exposure and mental health status. We use sex-stratified logistic regression to examine associations between persistent police exposure (defined as a high number of lifetime police stops) or aggressive police exposure (defined as threat or use of police force during the respondent's most recent police stop) and the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depressive symptoms.
Men reporting a high number of lifetime police stops have three times greater odds of current PTSD symptoms compared with men who did not report high lifetime police stops (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3–7.6), after adjusting for respondent age, race/ethnicity, education, history of homelessness, prior diagnosis of PTSD and neighbourhood violent crime rate. Women reporting a high number of lifetime police stops have two times greater odds of current PTSD symptoms, although the results are not statistically significant after adjustment (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9–4.2). Neither persistent nor aggressive police exposure is significantly associated with current depressive symptoms in our sample.
Our findings support existing preliminary evidence of an association between high lifetime police stops and PTSD symptoms. If future research can confirm as causal, these results have considerable public health implications given the frequent interaction between police and residents in disadvantaged communities in large urban areas.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
We observed the circumstellar environments (CSEs) of the semiregular AGB stars L2 Puppis, R Doradus and EP Aquarii with ALMA. (1) The molecular emission in the L2 Pup nebula reveals an edge-on rotating disk. (2) PV diagrams of the 28SiO emission in the inner CSE of R Dor expose a pattern pointing to an inclined rotating disk. (3) The CO emission in the CSE of EP Aqr reveals a nearly face-on equatorial density enhancement (EDE). The inner EDE strongly resembles theoretical wind-Roche-lobe-overflow models. The SiO emission points to a potential companion. The combination of (1), (2) and (3) suggests that a link may exist between the type of AGB pulsations and the morphological nature of the CSE.
Diagnosis of intestinal parasites through examination of fresh faecal samples is hampered by its unpleasantness and the urgent need to detect all parasitic forms. In this paper, we compared the standard Kato–Katz (KK) technique with a traditional fixation method, the merthiolate–iodine–formalin (MIF) method. Two hundred and twenty-seven faecal samples from individuals living in a rural setting in Venezuela with high to moderate prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworm infections were examined. The ‘gold standard’ used here was derived from the combination of the outcomes from both methods. KK performed better at detecting Tt, and showed higher sensitivity and negative predictive value for both Tt and Al, probably due to a higher capacity of KK to detect low parasite loads. Both methods showed an almost perfect agreement using the Kappa index. MIF provided a higher median of parasitic loads for low and total egg counts for the three helminths. Differentiating fertile from infertile eggs of Al did not affect the results; infertile eggs were present only at low and intermediate parasitic loads, but absent at high loads. KK was not able to detect high loads of any of the helminths. MIF allowed for the detection of other helminths, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, and protozoan infections, for which KK is not specific. In conclusion, MIF is a simple and inexpensive technique that performs competitively with KK in both laboratory and field work on intestinal helminths, particularly in resource-limited settings.
This chapter argues that personal sensorial and emotional experiences in fieldwork can be important for the acquisition of anthropological knowledge. Conducting research on gendered subjectivities and discourses of honour and shame in remote Western Nepal as a first‑time female fieldworker, I had a clear realisation of the intersection of senses, emotions and space. The Nepali lifestyle and lived spaces gave rise to a specific bodily praxis, in which corporeality, senses and emotions played an important role. In particular, being categorised as both woman and other attracted much unwanted sexual attention. As a result I ‘felt’ myself ‘in’ my body acutely, which at times gave rise to a high level of anxiety and awareness. My chapter will focus on this experience, which led me to feel and (re)act in certain ways. This relates to wider themes of gender, sexuality, comportment and honour in Nepali life, which are issues that Nepali women confront on a daily level. In the chapter, I explore the extent to which managing my visibility and ‘dulling the senses’ (see Desjarlais 1997) of sight and hearing as techniques of comportment and ease of movement during fieldwork had a significant impact on my understanding of how it ‘feels’ to be a woman in Nepal. This chapter will seek to explore the importance of such corporeal and emotional experiences of the intersection of senses, space and emotion in the acquisition of anthropological knowledge in ‘the field’.
To feel like a woman in Nepal and feel like a woman in Australia are different experiences. In Australia as a woman I feel more confident, respected and carefree. It's almost shameful to say, but I never thought about what it meant to be a woman in Australia, what it feels like from the inside looking out at the world. In Nepal it is a completely different and embodied experience. In Nepal I mentally prepare myself as I step out of the house, my own private space.
When a ball is dropped in fine very loose sand, a splash and subsequently a jet are observed above the bed, followed by a granular eruption. To directly and quantitatively determine what happens inside the sand bed, high-speed X-ray tomography measurements are carried out in a custom-made set-up that allows for imaging of a large sand bed at atmospheric pressures. Herewith, we show that the jet originates from the pinch-off point created by the collapse of the air cavity formed behind the penetrating ball. Subsequently, we measure how the entrapped air bubble rises through the sand, and show that this is consistent with bubbles rising in continuously fluidized beds. Finally, we measure the packing fraction variation throughout the bed. From this we show that there is (i) a compressed area of sand in front of and next to the ball while the ball is moving down, (ii) a strongly compacted region at the pinch-off height after the cavity collapse and (iii) a relatively loosely packed centre in the wake of the rising bubble.
Several narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) have now been detected in gamma rays, providing firm evidence that at least some of this class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) produce relativistic jets. The presence of jets in NLS1s is surprising, as these sources are typified by comparatively small black hole masses and near- or super-Eddington accretion rates. This challenges the current understanding of the conditions necessary for jet production. Comparing the properties of the jets in NLS1s with those in more familiar jetted systems is thus essential to improve jet production models. We present early results from our campaign to monitor the kinematics and polarization of the parsec-scale jets in a sample of 15 NLS1s through multifrequency observations with the Very Long Baseline Array. These observations are complemented by fast-cadence 15 GHz monitoring with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 m telescope and optical spectroscopic monitoring with with the 2 m class telescope at the Guillermo Haro Astrophysics Observatory in Cananea, Mexico.
As directed by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the US Department of Transportation (DOT) created the Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) discretionary grant program for surface transportation infrastructure projects. Through 2013, there have been five rounds of the grant program. TIGER uses a multi-step competitive application process to award surface transportation funds. TIGER applications are initially screened by US DOT’s staff of technical experts. For projects forwarded by the review team, US DOT economic experts then review the applicant’s benefit-cost analysis (BCA) and attempt to determine the likelihood that the benefits exceeded costs (i.e. not the applicant’s self-determination). The final awardees are then selected by a Review Team of Modal Administrators and DOT Office of the Secretary level officials. The purpose of this paper is to discuss many of the common errors in preparing, and issues in reviewing the applicant’s BCA and in making a net benefit determination. A secondary purpose is to determine if the most deserving projects, based on an applicant’s BCA and the likelihood that benefits exceeded costs, are more likely to receive grant funding. We do so for the second through the fifth rounds of the program.
High quality dilute nitride subcells for multijunction solar cells are achieved using GaInNAsSb. The effects on device performance of Sb composition, strain and purity of the GaInNAsSb material are discussed. New world records in efficiency have been set with lattice-matched InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple junction solar cells and a roadmap to 50% efficiency with lattice-matched multijunction solar cells using GaInNAsSb is shown.